《掌上解脫》讀書會

We feel something going wrong in life, but we don't have the method to analyse the problem nor the right solution to tackle... 

修習佛法,首先要知道佛法是什麼。佛法研習班著重理路﹑哲學﹑深入反思。

《掌上解脫》讀書會主個以聽聞,思考,禪修獲得智慧: 

  1. 看書:理解佛法內容,課堂前先閱讀指定頁數。

  2. 堂上討論:研討佛法與應用​。

  3. 分析禪 :禪修中保持覺性,審察﹑探討佛法。

  4. 每堂過後,跟上師Venerable Namgyel匯報
    問題,他會以影片/錄音解答。

  5. 舉辦閉關,深化學習

>2019年 課堂重點﹑討論筆記及錄音 (按這裡)

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​課堂資料  (包括讀書﹑研討﹑分析禪)

日子:  每四星期一堂 (星期五)

​時間:  晚上7 : 30- 9 : 15

​地點:  佐敦山林道錦興大廈8樓

費用:  每堂$20場地租用 + 隨喜布施 ​(用作購買班上物資)

歡迎有興趣學習佛法的朋友參加。(無分宗教﹑年齡﹑可插班)

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上課流程 :

7 : 45 - 8: 15      整理主要論點,聽上師對於上一堂問題的回答

8: 15 - 8 : 45       討論

8 : 45 - 9 : 10     分析禪  

 

*上課前,同學需預先閱讀指定頁數。上課時會重點討論內容及回饋*

學習書籍 :

《掌中解脫》《Liberation In The Palm Of Your Hand》

書籍簡介: 佛教的思想體系博大精深, 許多人不知從何入手,此本書記錄了帕繃喀仁波切「菩提道次第二十四天教授」 ,乃佛說八萬四千法蘊的心要, 對現代的大多數人而言,是最佳的入門捷徑。

網上訂購:  中文版 英文版  | 書店:佛哲書舍(請先致電查詢)

* 訂書方法很多, 歡迎自行選擇其他方法。

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題目﹑日子﹑預先閱讀範圍

2020年12月17日發菩提心方法 -自他相換 (上)

閱讀頁數: 中文書: 748 – 761, 中文電子書: 376 - 381,  英文書及英文電子書: 536 - 545

 

2021年1月 15日發菩提心方法 -自他相換 (下)

閱讀頁數: 中文書: 764 – 775, 中文電子書: 384 - 388,  英文書及英文電子書: 546 - 555

 

2021年2月19 日 修心七義 (一)

閱讀頁數: 中文書: 778 – 787, 中文電子書: 389 - 392,  英文書及英文電子書 556 - 563

 

2021年3月 19 日 修心七義 (二)

閱讀頁數: 中文書: 788 – 797, 中文電子書: 393 - 397,  英文書及英文電子書 564 - 568

 

2021年4月 16 日 修心七義 (三)

閱讀頁數: 中文書: 797 – 805, 中文電子書: 397 - 401,  英文書及英文電子書: 569 - 572

課堂筆記

筆記於每上課前upload

第1堂  2019年1月24日 前行及簡介


「菩提道次第」乃佛說八萬四千法蘊的心要, 對現代的大多數人而言,是最佳的入門捷徑。此書記錄了帕繃喀仁波切「菩提道次第二十四天教授」 , 目前在世界各地宏法的格魯派大德,多以此書作為教「菩提道次第」的範本。 「菩提道次第」作者宗大師總攝了三藏十二部、一切佛語的精華扼要,並以阿底峽尊者開示三士道次第的《菩提道炬論》(即《菩提道燈論》,簡稱《道炬論》),以及文殊菩薩所傳的《三主要道》教授(即出離心、菩提心、空正見,是將大乘道的核心次第安立出來,使修行者能快速成就大乘。)融合為《廣論》的架構。 結構: 這本書的結構分為五個部分 “道前基礎” 第一部分是“道前基礎”。我們不管學習任何知識或搞任何事情之前,一定要有妥善的準備工夫,為往前跨或更深入的基礎。 道前基礎就是教導我們:得到教法,應該準備什麼?要具足什麼條件、用什麼方法才能趣入,進而修學? 下士道 第二部分是下士道。透過道前基礎的準備和認識後,趣入佛法所修學的三士道, 下士道的說明分為四大段:一、念死無常,二、三惡趣苦,三、皈依三寶,四、深信業果。下士道指點我們業的理路,而我們也瞭解業的特徵。龍樹菩薩曾在《中論》提醒我們:為什麼我們對佛說的道理會知見稠林呢?原因很簡單,我們的知見一直在“空”上轉,錯誤的執著使我們不瞭解性空的真義,不能看見真如本性,不能彈出輪回之苦。因此,為達究竟圓滿佛果,只修習下士道是不夠的,而是要以此為基礎進入中士、上士。 中士道 第三部分的“中士道”包括:一、思惟苦諦,二、思惟集諦,三、思惟十二有支,四、思惟解脫生死正道。中士道說明四諦:苦集滅道。集諦為因,苦諦是果,道諦是因,滅諦是果。 如果我們能深入觀察苦性,就會瞭解世間的事一無可取而生起厭離心,而下定決心依著方法消除苦因、積累樂因。 上士道 第四部分“上士道”包括:一、發大菩提心,二、修菩薩行。修中士道後,進一步就該想到:一切眾生沉沒生死苦海,只是自己解決生死,仍不能救度一切眾生;為救度一切眾生,自己必須成就無上佛果。由此發起菩提心,求受菩薩戒,學習六度,修學四攝,就是上士道。 止觀 最後一部分說到“止觀”,止觀兼修才能明瞭見真實義,詳細抉擇清淨正見。 三層意思: 本書主要包括三層意思:出離心、菩提心和清淨見(空性)。 出離心,也名“求解脫心”。學佛的人,若沒有真正的出離心,所做的一切功德,只能成為感人天善趣之因,不能成為解脫生死之正因。若以出離心為發起(動機),或為出離心所攝持(掌握),所做不論大小何種功德,就是佈施畜生一把粗糠,或經一日一夜受持一戒,都成為解脫生死的資糧。 菩提心,就是總觀三界一切有情沉溺生死苦海,無有出期,為度一切有情出生死苦,志求證得無上菩提。學佛的人,若未發起大菩提心,所修一切功德,或墮生死,或墮小乘,都不能作成佛的正因。這個人也不能算是大乘人。若發起了大菩提心,雖然沒有其他功德,也可稱為菩薩;所做任何善事,都能成為成佛的資糧。所以在上士道中,修菩提心最重要。 清淨見,也稱為離增益,損減二邊的“中道正見”。萬法依因緣而生,本來沒有獨立的實性,眾生由於無始以來的妄執習氣,把無實性執為實有。一切法雖無實性,但依一定的因緣,決定當生,並非全無。若說萬法既無實性,就該什麼都沒有。




第2堂 2月21日 學習佛法需具備什麼 (中文版: 108 -136   英文版: 73 -88 )


聽聞軌理: 在聽法時應該有的態度 The way to listen to the Dharma 思惟聞法利益 Contemplating the benefits of studying the Dharma 「由聞知諸法,由聞遮堵惡,由聞斷非義,由聞得涅盤。] 「Owing to your study, you understand Dharma; Owing to your study, you stop sinning; Owing to your study, you abandon the meaningless; Owing to your study, you achieve nirvana.] 如何以正確的方式學習佛法,非常重要,若聽聞時付輕慢的態度,是無法和佛法相應的。因此,如能先了解,聽聞佛法有什麼殊勝的利益,這樣對於佛法,就能生起稀有之心,難遭之想;對於說法的法師,也能生起恭敬心。 於法與法師發起承事 How to show respect for the Dharma and its teacher 了解聞法所有的殊勝利益,但這些勝利從那裡獲得的呢?是從佛法及說法的法師處得到的。佛陀雖然涅槃,佛法還在,若是沒有說法的法師宣揚佛的法教,我們是沒有任何機會聽聞如來正法,所以為了憶念佛說法的恩德,面對替佛宣說聖教的法師,若是能起佛想,便能如佛親臨說法。更重要的是,能調伏自己的的雜染和慢心,使聞法產生最大的利益。 (一)應時聽聞 the right time (二) 發起恭敬 deference (三)當作侍奉 respect (四)不應忿恚 a lack of anger (五)後當實修 [the intention] to put the teaching into practice later (六)不求過失 an absence of arguing with the teaching 正聽聞之理分為兩節 The actual way to listen to the Dharma in two parts 正式聽聞時,若心散亂、昏沉,或是執持已有的邪執倒見,或是於聽聞後,不思惟修習,都無法獲得聞法的益處,所以應斷器三過,依六種想而正聽聞。 1) 斷除違緣器之三過 Abandoning the three types of faults hindering one from becoming a worthy vessel (一)如器皿倒覆之過 The fault of being like an upturned vessel (二)如器皿有污垢之過 The fault of being like a stained vessel (三)如器皿底部有漏孔之過 The fault of being like a leaky vessel 若是將器皿倒覆向下;或者口雖朝上,內部卻已遭染污;或是內部雖然潔淨,但底部有漏,這三種情況,都無法充分利用這只器皿。若天下雨,倒置的器皿無法盛水,不潔淨的器皿染污了水,有漏的器皿使水流失。 2) 依止順緣六種想 Cultivating the six helpful attitudes (一)對自己作病患想;Developing the attitude that you are like a patient (二)對正法作藥品想 ;Developing the attitude that the holy Dharma is medicine (三)對善知識作良醫想;Developing the attitude that your spiritual guide is like a skillful doctor (四)對認真實修作治病想; Developing the attitude that diligent practice will cure the illness (五)對如來作善士想;Developing the attitude that Tathagata are holy beings (六)對正法理作久住想。Developing the attitude that this traditionshould be preserved for a long time 如果對於聞法不能生起好樂之心,或與所聞法不能相應,都是因為不能察覺佛法對自身的好處。六想中,首先是於自身,安住如病人想,此想若是不能生起,後三想將更難生起,因為若是不覺自身有病,就無須找醫生,當然也沒有必要開藥方、服藥了。所以,首先應視己身如病人想,多觀察自己的煩惱、習氣,了知自己已是久病的病人,而且病情嚴重,到了必須立刻醫治的地步。如此才能生起欲聞法、修習的心。




第3堂 3月21日 學習道上老師的角色 (中文版: 318 - 366  英文版: 238 - 270) 重點內容:


擇師要點︰所依止的上師應該功大於過;視後世較現世為重;視別人較自己為重 The point is that you must rely on someone who has mainly good qualities rather than faults, who puts future lives before this life, and others before himself. 弟子需具備以下五種德相︰Disciples should also have five qualifications: (一)對自宗不貪著,對他派不嗔恚,不墮黨執、住於公正︰ they should be honest and impartial, not attached to their own group and hostile to other groups; (二)具有分辨善惡的智慧;they should have the wisdom to know right from wrong; (三)有大希求心; they should yearn [for the teachings; (四)對上師起大恭敬︰they should have great respect for their guru; (五)專心聽法。they should listen with their minds properly directed [that is, have a sound motivation]. 那么,具備這些德相的弟子又該怎樣來依止上師呢 -> So how does such a disciple go about devoting oneself to a guru -> 意樂依止法 DEVOTING YOURSELF THROUGH THOUGHT (1) 根本修信 the root: training yourself to have faith in your guru; a) 應觀師為佛之原則;The reason you must regard the guru as a buddha; b) 能觀之原因;The reason you are able to see him this way; 注重於上師功德這方面,身心為強烈的信心所壓倒,使之下能成為信心的障礙; 將觀察過失轉化為生起信心的助緣。if you focus on the aspect of his good qualities, you can put an end to your lack of faith; and this faith will then overwhelm any trivial fault you may see in him. You should use these two to make the faults you see in him bolster your faith. c) 如何觀法。How to regard him properly 上師是佛乃金剛持所許;上師是一切佛事業之作者;即於現下諸佛菩薩仍在利益有情; 自所見相無法決定。1.Vajradhara stated that the guru is a buddha; 2.Proof that the guru is the agent of all the buddhas’ good works 3.Buddhas and bodhisattvas are still working for the sake of sentient beings 4.You Cannot Be Sure of Appearances (2) 念恩生敬 remembering his kindness and developing respect for him. a) 師恩勝佛; the guru is much kinder than the buddhas; 《入行論》中所說︰ 「饒益眾有情,無數佛已逝,然我因自過,未得彼教養。」 Shantideva says in Engaging in the Deeds of Bodhisattvas: ''Countless buddhas who worked For the sake of all sentient beings Have departed, and because of my misdeed I was not among those healed by them.'' b) 說法恩; his kindness in teaching Dharma; c) 加持心相續恩; his kindness in blessing your mindstream; d) 以財物攝受為眷屬恩。his kindness in attracting you into his circle through material gifts. 加行依止法 DEVOTING YOURSELF THROUGH DEEDS 如《經莊嚴論》中所說︰「當由財利及承事,並修行門依知識。」 In An Ornament to the Sutras we find: Through gifts and reverence, through service, And through practice, rely on a spiritual guide. 加行依止法中有下、中、上三類方法。 In other words, there are three ways to devote yourself through deeds: the least [gifts and reverence], middling [service], and best [practice]. 如何作結行之次第 WHAT TO DO IN THE LAST PART OF THE SESSION 座末修完每一種道次第所緣類時,當念誦釋迦佛名號和密咒,以及回向發願。 At the end of a particular lamrim meditation topic, recite the name and mantra of Shakyamuni, the king of the Shakyas, and make prayers and dedications. 座間如何修之理 WHAT TO DO BETWEEN MEDITATION SESSIONS 這個護正知法很要緊,對自己身體所作的動作、嘴裡所說的話、心裡所起的念頭等三門所作的事,我們都要三思而行。 You should perform the actions of your three doors—the movements of your body, the things you say, and the trains of thought that go through your mind—while giving these matters their due consideration. 我的上師曾說︰ 「心修行者在身體的關房內,作正念、正知的閉關。」我們應該這樣時刻保持正念· 正知,精熟於心不散亂的方法。 My guru said, “The mind of the practitioner is in retreat and meditates on vigilance in the retreat house of the body.” You can become skilled in this method of not being distracted by always being vigilant. 正如密勒日巴大師所說的︰ 「萬有皆現為經書」,我們應該把所見到的一切,視為激勵我們修習慈心、悲心、出離心等的勸說者。 Je Milarepa said that worldly trivia can act as your books. In other words, everything you see ought to stimulate your love, compassion, renunciation, and so on.




第4堂 4月18日 生命難得 (中文版: 367 - 417   英文版: 270 - 304)


有暇身勸取心要 The Optimum Human Rebirth 既依止已如何修心之次第 The Proper Graduated Training You Should Undertake after You Have Begun to Rely on Your Spiritual Guide (一)於有暇身勸取心要 The stimulus to take the essence from your optimum human rebirth 認明暇滿 Identifying the Optimum Human Rebirth 出離的轉心四思維中,「暇滿難得﹑人生無常﹑因果不虛﹑輪迴過患」中,前兩者是為讓行者出離今生,反者是為讓行者出離來世。 前兩者提到「人身難得」,也就是「暇滿難得」,即能夠得到修法之身的八種閒暇與十種圓滿人生。所謂「暇滿」分開來解釋,就是「閒暇」和「圓滿」,「閒暇」代表有閒暇去修持佛法,「圓滿」則是具備一切內外修法的因緣,因此稱為暇滿人身,而這就是真正殊勝的人身,也是具備修法基礎根器的人生。 (a)認明暇滿:八有暇 The Freedoms; 「執邪倒見生傍生,餓鬼地獄無佛教, 及生邊地蔑戾車,性為騃啞長壽天。 於隨一種受生已,名為八無暇過患, 離此諸過得閒暇,故當策勵斷生死。」 Upholding wrong views, being an animal, Hungry ghost, or being born in hell, Being without a victor’s teachings, Being born in a remote place as a barbarian, As an idiot or mute, or as a long-lived god: Any of these rebirths is one of the eight faulty unfavorable states. Because you have gained a favorable state free of these, Strive to block your future rebirths. (b)認明暇滿:十圓滿 The Endowments (5 personal endowments; 5 endowments in relation to others. 五自圓滿:人、生中、根具,業未倒、信處。 Five Personal endowment: Born a human, in a central land, having all one’s faculties; Not perverted by the heinous crimes; and having enduring faith. 五他圓滿:佛降說正法,教住隨教轉,有他具悲憫 FIVE ENDOWMENTS IN RELATION TO OTHERS: A Buddha has come and taught the Dharma; The teachings remain and are followed;People have love in their hearts for others. 思惟利大 Thinking about the Great Benefits of the Optimum Human Rebirth (a)思惟觀待現前利大 its great benefits in the short term; (b)思惟觀待究竟利大 its great benefits in the long term; (c)思惟下至每一剎那亦為利大 in short, thinking on how even every moment of it can be most beneficial. 思惟難 Thinking about How Difficult the Optimum Human Rebirth Is to Acquire 「因」難成辦故暇滿難得︰ (二)[ 體性」難湊全故難得︰ (三)[ 喻」 難出現故難得。 (a)由因之門思惟難得 Thinking about the causes for Its Being So Hard to Acquire; - 今後是否再得暇滿,取決於暇滿的因具不具足 - Obtaining optimum human rebirth depends on whether you have the causes to receive it (b)由喻之門思惟難得 Some Analogies for the Difficulty of Acquiring It; - 「房頂草、龜頸」 - “Grass on the roof of a tower; the neck of a turtle…,” (c)由體性之門思惟難得 It’s Difficult by Nature to Acquire. 「得如走暇已,我若不修善, 無余欺過此,亦無過此愚。」 If I do not cultivate virtue,After obtaining such an opportunity, There is no greater self-deception. Nothing could be blinder! 「受其珍貴眾良藥,若不服用療病藥,非醫致使非藥過,惟是病者自過失。 如是於此教出家,偏了力根靜慮已,若於修行不精進,不勤現証豈涅盤 ·」 Yet the patient does not take much wholesome and precious medicine, the potential cure. Do not blame the doctor; The medicine’s not at fault. Rather, the patient himself is to blame. So, too, with people ordained into this doctrine: They may know full well about the [ten] forces, The dhyana concentrations, the [ten] powers, Yet they make no true effort to meditate. How could nirv›˚a come without proper effort?…Though I have taught you the Dharma well. If you have heard it and do not practice well, You are like the patient who left the medicine in its case, Thinking, “This cannot cure my disease.” 死亡無常 Remembering Death and impermanence (二)如何正取心要之理 How To Extract The Essence From Your Optimum Human Rebirth 於共下士道次第修心 training your mind in the stages of the path shared with the small scope; (a)發起希求後世之心 Developing A Yearning For A Good Rebirth (b)此世不能久住而念死 remembering that your present rebirth will not last long and that you will die; (c)思惟後世二趣苦樂如何 thinking about what sort of happiness or suffering you will have in your next rebirth in either of the two types of migrations. (next class) 依止後世安樂方便 Teaching the means for happiness in your next rebirth 不念死之過患 The Drawbacks Of Not Remembering Death (a)不念正法過患 the drawback that you will not remember dharma; (b)雖念不修過患 the drawback that you will remember [the dharma] but not practice it; (c)雖修不淨過患 the drawback that] you will practice but not practice properly; (d)修不殷重過患 the drawback of not practicing seriously; (e)自謀不善過患 the drawback of acting vulgarly; (f)臨終時將追悔而死過患 the drawback of having to die with regrets. 念死之利益 the advantages of remembering death (a)利大利益 the Advantage of Being Most Beneficial; (b)力大利益 the advantage of being most powerful; (c)最初重要利益 it is important at the beginning; (d)中間重要利益 it is important in the meantime; (e)最後重要利益 it is important at the end; (f)臨終時歡喜而死利益 the Advantage that You Will Die Happily and Gladly. 正念死之理 The actual way to remember death (a)修習死亡九種因相 the nine-part meditation on death; (b)思惟死決定 thinking of the inevitability of death; (c)思惟死期無定 thinking about the uncertainty of when you will die; (d)思惟死時除正法外,余皆無益 thinking of how nothing can help you when you die except Dharma.




第5堂 5月16日 觀死無常 (中文版: 417 - 446   英文版: 304 - 318)


丙二)如何正取心要之理 How To Extract The Essence From Your Optimum Human Rebirth 本段分三節︰(丁一)於共下士道次第修心;(丁二)於共中士道次第修心;(丁三)於上士道次第修心。 This has three sections: (1) training your mind in the stages of the path shared with the small scope; (2) training your mind in the stages of the path shared with the medium scope; (3) training your mind in the great scope stages of the path. 上堂講到: (丁一)於共下士道次第修心 training your mind in the stages of the path shared with the small scope; 今堂開始: 正念死之理 The actual way to remember death 修習死亡九種因相 the nine-part meditation on death; 思惟死亡決定 thinking of the inevitability of death; 一、死主決定當至,無緣能令退卻 the first reason: the lord of death will inevitably come, and no circumstance at all can prevent this 二、壽數無可增添,不斷減損 the second reason: thinking how nothing is being added to your lifespan and it is always being subtracted from 三、於生時亦無閒暇修法而死 the third reason: thinking about how you will definitely die before getting round to practicing dharma 思惟死期無定 thinking about the uncertainty of when you will die; 四、總瞻部洲人,別於濁世,死期無定 the first reason: in general the lifespan of people from the southern continent is not fixed, and this is especially so for lifespans during these degenerate times 五、死緣極多,活緣微少,故死期無定 the second reason: when you will die is uncertain because there are many factors contributing toward your death and few toward your life 六、身極脆弱,故死期無定 the third reason: when you will die is uncertain because the body is extremely fragile 思惟死時除正法外,余皆無益 thinking of how nothing can help you when you die except Dharma. 七、財物無益 the first reason: wealth cannot help you 八、親友無益 the second reason: friends and relatives cannot help you 九、身亦無益 the third reason: even your body cannot help you (辛二)修習死相 meditation on the aspects of death




第6堂 6月6日 因果 (中文版: 549 - 606  英文版: 389 - 421)


深信業果─ ─切安樂之本 Developing believing faith in the law of cause and effect 己二、於一切安樂根本業果發深忍信 the root of all health and happiness 庚一、思惟業果總相 Thinking about cause and effect in general 辛一、正明思惟總相 The actual way to think about cause and effect in general 壬一、業決定理 how karma is fixed 壬二、業增長廣大 karma shows great increase 壬三、不遇未造業 one does not meet with something if one has not created the karma for it to happen 壬四、已造業不失 karma once created will not disappear of its own accord 辛二、分別思惟 Thinking about some of the specifics of cause and effect 壬一、思黑業果 thinking about the black side of cause and effect 癸一、正明黑業道 The actual black karmic process (一) 殺生 Killing (二) 不與取 Taking what is not given (三) 欲邪行 Sexual misconduct (四) 妄語 Lying (五) 離間語 Divisive Speech (六) 粗惡語 Harsh Words (七) 綺語 Idle gossip (八) 貪婪心 Covetousness (九) 嗔恚心 Harmful intent (十) 邪見 Wrong views 癸二、輕重差別 The differences that make for heavy or light karma (一) 因體性故業重 Heavy by nature (二) 因意樂故業重 Heavy because of the intention (三) 因加行故業重 Heavy because of the deed (四) 因事故業重 Heavy because of the basis (五) 因久作故業重 Heavy because of always being done (六) 因無對治故業重 Heavy because no antidote has been applied 癸三、示彼等之果 Teaching what the results of these karmas are 子一、異熟果 ripened result, 子二、等流果 congruent with the cause 子三、增上果 environmental results 壬二、思白業果 thinking about the white side of cause and effect 癸一、正明白業道 teaching the actual white karmic process 癸二、示彼等之果 teaching its results. 子一、異熟果 ripened result, 子二、等流果 congruent with the cause 子三、增上果 environmental results 壬三、附帶開示具力業門 teaching about the doors that unintentionally lead to powerful karma (一) 由福田門故力大 Powerful owing to the field (二) 由所依門故力大 powerful because one had been a candidate for vows (三) 由事物門故力大 powerful because of the things being done (四) 由意樂門故力大 Powerful because of the intention 庚二、思惟業果別相 Thinking about some of the specifics 辛一、異熟功德 the ripened qualities 辛二、異熟作用 their functions of the ripened qualities 辛三、修異熟因 the causes to achieve these ripened qualities 庚三、思業果已如何進退之理 after thinking about these things, the way to modify your behavior (一) 總開示 the general teaching (二) 別以四力淨罪之法 in particular, how to purify oneself with the four powers




第7堂 7月11日 認識痛苦 (中文版: 606 - 652  英文版: 427 - 461)


丁二、於共中士道次第修心 Training Your Mind in the Stages of the Path Shared with the Medium Scope 戊一、發起求解脫心 Developing Thoughts of Yearning For Liberation (己一)思惟輪回總苦 Thinking About The General Sufferings of Samsara 庚一、無定過患 The Bane of Uncertainty 庚二、無飽足過患 The Bane of Being Dissatisfied 庚三、數數舍身過患 The Bane of Repeatedly Leaving Bodies 庚四、數數結身過患 The Bane of Being Conceived And Born Over and Over Again 庚五、數數高下過患 The Bane of Moving From High To Low Over and Over Again 庚六、無伴過患 The Bane of Having No Companion (己二)思惟輪回別苦 Thinking About Samsara Specific Sufferings 庚一、思惡趣苦 Thinking About The Sufferings of The Lower Realms 庚二、思善趣苦 Thinking About The Sufferings Of The Upper Realms (辛一)思惟人苦 Thinking About Human Sufferings 壬一、思惟生苦 The Suffering of Birth 壬二、思惟老苦 The Suffering of Aging 壬三、思惟病苦 The Suffering of Illness 壬四、思惟死苦 The Suffering of Death 壬五、恩愛別離苦 The Suffering of Being Separated from The Beautiful 壬六、恩怨憎會苦 The Suffering of Meeting With The Ugly 壬七、思求不得苦 Thinking About The Suffering of Seeking The Things We Desire But Not Finding Them (辛二)思惟非天苦 Thinking About The Sufferings of The Demigods (辛三)思惟天苦 Thinking About The Sufferings of The Gods 戊二、抉擇趣解脫道自性 Ascertaining The Nature Of The Path Leading To Liberation (己一)思惟集諦輪回流轉次第 Thinking About The Source of Suffering—The Entry To Samsara (己二)抉擇能趣解脫道性 Actually Ascertaining The Nature of The Path Leading To Liberation




第8堂 8月1日 貪 嗔 痴 慢 疑 (上) (中文版: 652 - 657  英文版: 461 - 465)


於共中士道次第修心 此科分為兩部份︰ (一)發起求解脫心; (二)抉擇趣解脫道自性。 發起求解脫心 分兩方面︰ (己一)思惟輪回總苦; (己二)思惟輪回別苦。 --------------------------- 抉擇趣解脫道自性 Ascertaining The Nature Of The Path Leading To Liberation (一)思惟集諦輪回流轉次第 Thinking About The Source of Suffering—The Entry To Samsara; (二)抉擇能趣解脫道性。Actually Ascertaining The Nature of The Path Leading To Liberation 思惟集諦輪回流轉次第 Thinking about the source of suffering—the entry to samsara 在思惟了總、別輪回的過患,因而厭離輪回、生起求解脫的願望時,我們應該探查 究竟是什麼原因造成了輪回,如此才能斬斷輪回之流。 >>集諦中有 [ 業 ] 集諦與 [ 煩惱 ] 集諦兩種。我們所背負的取蘊重擔是由業造成的,而業是由煩惱生起的。 >> 煩惱是造成輪回的根本。 這部分共分三段來講︰ (一)煩惱發生之理;how delusions are developed; (二)煩惱集業之理;how karma is accumulated through them; (三)死歿及結生之理。how one leaves one rebirth and death and is conceived in another. 煩惱發生之理 分四小節︰ (辛一)認明煩惱; (辛二)煩惱如何生起之次第; (辛三)煩惱之 因; (辛四)煩惱之過。 (辛一)認明煩惱 The Identification of the Delusions The Root Delusions六大根本煩惱: Attachment貪 ( 如布浸入油中) Anger嗔 ( 如同火的燃燒) Pride慢 (如不能儲水的高山) Ignorance無明 ( 好像閉上眼睛黑漆漆) Doubt疑 Wrong Views五煩惱見: · The View That Equates the Self With The Perishable 邊執見 · Extreme Views 見取 · The View of Holding the Aggregates To Be Supreme 壞聚見 · Holding an Ethic or Code of Behaviour To Be Supreme 戒禁取 · Wrong Views 邪見




第9堂 8月29日 貪 嗔 痴 慢 疑 (下) (中文版: 658 - 668   英文版: 465 - 472)


於共中士道次第修心 此科分為兩部份︰ (戊一)發起求解脫心; (戊二)抉擇趣解脫道自性。 發起求解脫心 分兩方面︰ (己一)思惟輪回總苦; (己二)思惟輪回別苦。 抉擇趣解脫道自性 (己一)思惟集諦輪回流轉次第; (己二)抉擇能趣解脫道性。 思惟集諦輪回流轉次第 這部分共分三段來講︰(庚一)煩惱發生之理;(庚二)煩惱集業之理;(庚三) 死歿及結生之理。 煩惱發生之理 分四小節︰ (辛一)認明煩惱; (辛二)煩惱如何生起之次第; (辛三)煩惱之 因; (辛四)煩惱之過。 (辛二)煩惱如何生起之次第 The Stages in Their Development (辛三)煩惱之因 The Causes of Delusions The First Cause: Their Foundation 所依,即煩惱種子或隨眠。 The Second Cause: Their Focus or Object 所緣或境,即悅意與不悅意境等。 The Third Cause: Society 猥雜,即交惡友招致的散亂。 The Fourth Cause: Discussions 言教,即閱讀能生起煩惱的邪法書籍。 The Fifth Cause: Familiarity 串習, 心念散亂的時候,貪、嗔等煩惱便任運生起。 The Sixth Cause: Unrealistic Thinking 作意, 即對貪、嗔等對象不斷加以虛構的非理作意。 (辛四)煩惱之過 The Drawbacks of Delusions 庚二、煩惱集業之理 How Karma is Accumulated 思業、思已業 Mental Karma、Intended Karma (十二因緣)




第10堂 9月26日 修行方向 (中文版: 495 - 536  英文版: 353 - 375 )


第十二天、皈依──入聖教之門 Teaching The Means For Happiness In Your Next Rebirth Taking Refuge: The Holy Gateway for Entering the Teachings 庚一、依何因皈依 The Causes on Which One’s Taking Refuge Depends 皈依必須具備以下二因︰ 自己對輪回與惡趣苦心生恐懼; 信任三寶有能力保護我們遠離那些怖畏、對三寶起深忍信。 不具備上述條件,就不是清淨皈依。 In other words, we need both causes: personal fear of samsara and the lower realms, and the belief that, if we are able to put our trust in them, the Three Jewels will have the ability to protect us from these terrors. If we do not have both these causes, we will not take refuge purely. 庚二、皈依何境 What to Take Refuge In 辛一、正說認明皈依境 the actual identification of the things to take refuge in 只有佛、法、僧三寶才是我們可皈依的對象。 we will want to take refuge in the Buddha, the teacher of Buddhism, in his teachings, and in those who abide by his teachings. 辛二、可皈依此之原因 the reasons why they are fitting refuges. 三寶之所以可皈依,主要是因為佛寶的功德,其中有四項原因︰ The main reasons are the good qualities of the jewel of Buddha. There are four reasons for this. 1. 佛本人已經解脫一切怖畏 Buddha has freed himself from all dangers. 2. 佛善巧解脫他人一切怖畏之法 Buddha is skilled in the means to free others from danger 3. 佛大悲普度無有親疏 Buddha reacts compassionately to all, without feelings of intimacy or distance 4. 無論有恩無恩佛皆饒益 The Buddha works for the sake of all others, whether they have helped him or not. 庚三、皈依量為幾何 The Measure of Having Taken Refuge 辛一、由知功德之門皈依 Taking refuge by knowing the good qualities of one’s refuge 1. 佛功德 the good qualities of the Buddha (1. 身功德 2、語功德 3、意功德 4、事業功德) (1) of his body; (2) of his speech; (3) of his mind; (4) of his good works. 2. 法功德 the good qualities of the Dharma 3. 僧功德 the good qualities of the Sangha 辛二、由知差別之門皈依 Taking refuge by knowing the differences between the three jewels (一)體性差別 The difference between the characteristics of the Three Jewels (二)事業差別 The difference between the good works of the Three Jewels (三)信解差別 There are different ways of regarding the Three Jewels when one takes refuge (四)修行差別 The different practices [associated with the Three Jewels] (五)隨念差別 The different ways of recalling them are to remember the different qualities of the Three Jewels (六)生福差別 The differences in how the Three Jewels increase one’s merit 辛三、由承許之門皈依 Taking refuge owing to one’s beliefs 辛四、由不言有余之門皈依 Taking refuge and not asserting another [religion] 庚四、皈依利益 The benefits of taking refuge 辛一、入內道佛子數 You become a Buddhist 辛二、為一切律儀之基礎 You become a Buddhist, you become a candidate for all vows 辛三、滅盡往昔所集諸業障 You will use up obscurations acquired from previously accumulated karma 辛四、順易累積廣大福德 You will easily accumulate a huge amount of merit 辛五、人與非人不能為害 You will not be bothered by the harmful actions of humans or creatures 辛六、不墮惡趣 You will not fall to the lower realms 辛七、無勞成就現前與究竟諸事 You will effortlessly achieve all your temporary and long term aims 辛八、速疾成佛 You will soon be enlightened




第11&12堂 2019年11月14日 課題:十二恩緣 (上) 實體書(中文版:671-682 英文版:476-487) 電子書(中文版:340-344 英文版:476-487)


第十五天、思惟苦恩及決擇解脫道勝 Day 15: Understanding the Causes of Samsara 思惟集諦輪回流轉次第 這部分共分三段來講︰(庚一)煩惱發生之理;(庚二)煩惱集業之理;(庚三) 死歿及結生之理。 庚三、死歿及結生之理 How You Leave One Rebirth At Death And Are Reconceived In Another 辛一、死如何發生之理 What Happens at Death 辛二、死後成辦中有之理 The Way One Achieves The Bardo 辛三、於生有受生之理 The Way One Is Conceived And Reborn 十二緣起支 Twelve Interdependent Links YouTube: 什麼是十二因緣 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N-WIMlHk_f0 此處為了加強我們的厭離心,特由十二緣起支之門來思惟集諦輪回的過患。 無明︰ 即流轉生死的根本。智慧見到的是無我;無明則將[ 補特伽羅] 與[ 法] 視 為有我與自相有,因為與明智的認知正好相反,故稱[ 無明],就像是瞎眼的愚人一樣。 無明有兩種︰ [ 業果愚無明]、[ 真實義愚無明]。 Ignorance This is the root of our going round in samsara. We are ignorant of how to apprehend selflessness with our wisdom; when we perceive persons or phenomena, we hold that they have a self or that they can be established by their nature. Ignorance is our perverse manner of apprehension that contradicts the cognition of primal wisdom. This is like being benighted and blind. There are two forms of ignorance: ignorance of cause and effect, and of suchness. 行︰ 即以無明為動機,能召來後有蘊的造業。由業果愚無明之動機造[ 非福業] ; 由真實義愚無明之動機造〔福業] 與[ 不動業] 。 Compositional factors Ignorance motivates the compositional factors as if this were its job. The aggregates manifest in our [next] reincarnation, and this is the function of the compositional factors. Thus we are motivated by the ignorance of being blind to the law of cause and effect, thereby creating unmeritorious karma; or we are motivated by the ignorance of being blind to the mode of existence of things, and we create unmeritorious or immutable karma. All these types of karma are compositional factors. 識︰ 分[ 因位] 與[ 果位〕二類。[ 因位識],為行支業習氣當下所薰之識; [ 果 位識],為於生有當下結生之識。例如在以無明為動機造殺生業時,業道圓滿之 當下,為此業習氣所薰之識,即[ 因位識]。由於此業力,於地獄生有結生當下的識, CONSCIOUSNESS This refers to two consciousnesses: the consciousness at the time of the cause, and that at the time of the result. The first type is the consciousness immediately after the instinct or latency of the compositional factor, that is the karma, has been imprinted. The second type is the consciousness immediately after conception into the [next] incarnation. An illustration: suppose that, motivated by ignorance, you take a life. When you commit this karmic action, or compositional factor, its instinct or latency is imprinted as soon as the karmic process has been completed. This is the consciousness at the time of the cause. By virtue of this karma you are conceived into an incarnation as a hell being; immediately after this conception, the situation of your consciousness constitutes the consciousness at the time of the result. Each nonvirtuous karmic action is capable of throwing one into many rebirths in the lower realms. Apply the same principles to meritorious karma and so on. The instincts of these karmic actions enter the consciousness as oil soaks into sand or the ink of an official seal soaks into paper. Craving and clinging are able to activate these latencies, which then become potent enough to effect rebirth. 名色︰ 以胎生為例,受、想、行、識四蘊為[ 名] 緣起︰識所進入的受精卵羯羅藍 等為[ 色] 緣起。它們又稱為[ 名色隨一緣起]。 NAME AND FORM In the case of rebirth from a womb, the name link is the four aggregates of feeling, recognition, compositional factors, and consciousness. The form link is the blood and sperm in their first stage of development, etc., into which the consciousness has been placed. Such links, where they apply, are called the link of name or of form. 六處︰ 此時眼、耳等六處雖已形成,但因根、境、識三者尚未會合,故不能取境。 身與意根從[ 羯羅藍] (36)位起就有。如果是化生,下二界中,[ 名色] 緣起與[ 六 處] 緣起同時形成︰無色界中,只有[ 名] 緣起與〔意處] 緣起,沒有[ 色] 與[ 五有 色處] 緣起。 THE SIX SENSES Once the six sense faculties—the eye, ear, [nose, tongue, body, mind]— have formed, this link only applies as long as one still cannot discriminate between objects whenever a certain object, a faculty, and the sensory consciousness are present. The physical and mental faculties are said to exist from the period of initial fetal development.With the example of a transformational rebirth into the two inferior realms [the desire and form realms], the name and form link and the link of the six senses occur simultaneously. In the formless realm there are only the name link and the link of the mental sense; there are no links of form or of the five physical senses. 觸︰ 根、境、識三者會遇,取悅意、不悅意、不喜不厭三種境,為觸緣起。 CONTACT Once the previous link has been formed, the [potential] object, the [appropriate] faculty, and the [appropriate] sense consciousness are present and touch [that is, interact] as well; one can then discriminate between pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral objects. This is the contact link. 受︰ 以觸為緣,產生樂受、苦受、舍受三種受。例如,值遇悅意境而生樂等。 FEELING The contact link serves as the condition for the development of one of the three types of feeling: happiness, suffering, or equanimity. For example, we develop happy feelings on meeting with a pleasant object. 愛︰ 對樂受起[ 不離愛] ;對痛苦起[ 乖離愛]、想要逃避;對平等舍起[ 不壞 愛〕。這裡所說的由受生愛,是說伴有無明的觸緣所生的受,由此受生愛;如果沒有無 明,受是不會產生愛的。 Craving Craving is wanting not to be separated from happy feelings. It is also wanting to be separated from suffering and clinging to this separation.We can also crave that our equanimity does not decline. Feelings are said to serve as a subsidiary cause for the development of craving. This should be understood to mean that ignorance is present and that contact then serves as a contributory factor for the feelings that then occur, which in turn produce craving. So when we do not have ignorance, we may still have feelings, yet craving will not develop. 取︰ 愛逐漸增強之後對境產生的希求與貪著。取分四種︰對妙欲的貪著為[ 欲取] ;對除壞聚見之外邪見的貪著為[ 見取] ;對與邪見相關的惡戒與禁行的貪著為[ 戒禁 取] ;對諦實的執著、尤其對蘊的壞聚的執著為[ 我語取]。 GRASPING Our craving increases, so we desire the object and become attached to it. There are four types of grasping. Grasping at the sensual is being attached to the objects of the senses. Grasping at views is being attached to [all] evil views except the view that equates the self with the perishable. Grasping at ethics and modes of behavior is being attached to inferior ethics and modes of behavior linked to evil views. Grasping at assertions that there is a self is a fondness for [notions of ] true existence: it is fundamentally a fondness for [the view of equating the self with the] perishable aggregates. 有︰ 行將業習氣薰染於識,次為愛、取所觸發,從而變得有力而能引生後身。 BECOMING In the past, the compositional factors [link] implanted the instinct of some karmic action into the consciousness. Craving and grasping activate this instinct, which then becomes potent enough to throw one into a body in a future rebirth. 生︰ 受到觸發的業變得有力量而能形成後有,於是識在四生任何一種狀態下結生, 此最初結生,即為[ 生] 緣起,然後依次形成[ 老、死] 緣起。 BECOMING In the past, the compositional factors [link] implanted the instinct of some karmic action into the consciousness. Craving and grasping activate this instinct, which then becomes potent enough to throw one into a body in a future rebirth. 老死︰ 老指蘊的狀態逐漸變化、成熟;死為蘊同分的舍棄或壞死。 AGING AND DEATH We receive, where applicable, the links of aging and death in order. Aging is the maturing of the aggregates, the gradual changing of their condition. Death is what we call the destruction of the aggregates or their ceasing to function.

己二、抉擇能趣解脫道性

[Actually] Ascertaining the nature of the path leading to liberation

庚一、以何等身滅除輪回

The sort of physical rebirth that will stop samsara

庚二、修何等道滅除輪回

The sort of path that will stop samsara




​第13堂 入菩提行 2020年1月16日 閱讀頁數: 中文書: 696 - 720, 中文電子書: 353 - 362, 英文書及英文電子書: 499 - 516


第13堂

日期:2020年1月16日

課題:入菩提行

實體書(中文版:696-720 英文版:499-516)

電子書(中文版:353-362 英文版:499-516)

第十六天、發菩提心利益

Day 16: Training the mind in the great-scope stages of the path

丁三、于上士這次第修心

Training the mind in the great-scope stages of the path

戊一、顯示人大乘門惟是發心及其利益

Teaching that the development of bodhichitta is the sole gateway to the Mahayana, and teaching its benefits as well

發心利益共有十種︰

I will speak about these benefits under ten headings:

(己一)顯示入大乘門惟是發心;

(1) teaching that the only way to enter the Mahayana is to develop bodhichitta;

(己二)獲佛子名;

(2) you gain the name “child of the victors”;

(己三)映蔽聲聞;

(3) you outshine the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas;

(己四)成就最勝福田;

(4) you become a supreme object of offering;

(己五)易圓滿資糧;

(5) you amass an enormous accumulation of merit with ease;

(己六)速淨罪障;

(6) you rapidly purify sins and obscurations;

(己七)成就所願;

(7) you accomplish whatever you wish;

(己八)損害與中斷不侵;

(8) you are not bothered by harm or hindrances;

(己九)速疾圓滿一切地道;

(9) you soon complete the entire path and its levels;

(己十)成就出生眾生無余安樂之良田。

(10) you become a fertile source of every happiness for other beings.




第14堂 六波羅蜜 (布施) 2020年2月13日 閱讀頁數: 中文書: 808 - 816, 中文電子書: 402 - 406, 英文書及英文電子書: 573 - 579


第二十天、六度總說

如果沒有菩提心卻想成佛,縱然修大印、大圓滿、中觀、生圓次第等任何法,也照

樣進不了大乘之門,更不要說能稍微向佛位靠攏一些下。因此,所有人都要將菩提心作為修持的中心。諸佛以一切智經多劫觀察,發現沒有比這個更殊勝的方便,也沒有任何

不需要善提心之道可修。

If you have no bodhichitta, no matter what meditations you do in the hope of achieving buddhahood—be they on mahamudra or dzogchen, the middle way, or the generation and completion stages, etc.—they will not get you one bit closer to buddhahood. And as if this were not enough, you will not even enter the gateway to the Mah›y›na. Thus everybody must concentrate on the practice of bodhichitta. The buddhas have perceived things for many eons with the primal wisdom of their omniscience, but they have not seen any better method or any other gateway to the path.

戊三、既發心已學行之理

The Activities To Train In After Developing Bodhichitta

想獲得佛的法、色二身,必須雙修福德、智慧兩種資糧,學習方便、智慧互不乖離之道。

You should gather both the merit and the primal wisdom types of collection in conjunction with each other in order to achieve both the physical and wisdom truth bodies of a victorious

one; your training therefore has to be a balance of both method and wisdom.

己一、成熟自相續學六度之理

How To Train In The Six Perfections In Order To Ripen Your Own Mindstream

此科分三段來講,(庚一)總學佛子行之理; (庚二)別學后二度之理; (庚三)

學不共金剛乘之理。

This has three subheadings: (1) the general way to train in the deeds of the

children of the victors; (2) in particular, the way to train in the last two perfections;

(3) the way to train in the Vajrayana.

庚一、總學佛子行之理

The General Way To Train In The Deeds Of The Children Of The Victors

此段分六節︰ (辛一)學習布施之理; (辛二)學習持成之理; (辛三)學習安

忍之理﹗,(辛四)學習精進之理; (辛五)學習靜慮之理; (辛六)學習智慧之理。

There are six headings: (1) generosity; (2) ethics; (3) patience; (4) perseverance; (5) [dhy›na] concentration; (6) wisdom.

辛一、學習布施之理

Generosity

(一)財施 Being Generous With Material Things

在布施之始與布施之末,都要認真地糾正動機,以確保有利益有情之心,並作強有力的發願。所作的布施不論大小,都不能有想獲取名利等自私的念頭。

When you give something away, set your motivation both before and afterward: the thing is being done for the sake of all sentient beings. Also make strong prayers. No matter whether the act of generosity is large or small, do not hope for benefit in return through offerings or respect, and so on.

(二)法施 Being Generous With The Dharma

以饒益心為想聽法的人開示四句偈以上的法,即是法施。……與其它布施相比,法施最為殊勝。

This form of generosity could even be teaching a single four-line verse of Dharma to someone who wishes to listen, if done with that person’s benefit in mind…. Generosity With The Dharma Is Better Than The Other Forms Of Generosity.

(三)無畏施 The Generosity Of Giving Others Fearlessness

釋放在監牢中受苦者,拯救落水者,冬夏時節保護蟲子等動物免受寒、熱之苦等等,都是無畏施。

This could be, for example, liberating prisoners from jail or rescuing the drowning. Even saving creatures such as earthworms from heat in summer or cold in winter is a form of this type of generosity.

布施波羅蜜多的主要含義,如《入行論》中所說︰

“ 若除眾生貧,始成施度者,

今猶見飢者,昔佛如何成? ”

Engaging in the Deeds of Bodhisattvas tells us fundamentally what “the

perfection of generosity” is:

If the perfection of generosity

Were ridding all beings of poverty,

How would the previous protectors, the buddhas, have perfected it,

Since even now the poor exist?

布施並非指消除有情的貧窮或克服慳吝而已,因為這些是聲聞、獨覺阿羅漢都能辦到的。其正確含義當如《入行論》中所言曰︰

“ 一切有及果,心施予眾生,

說名為施度,故施即是心。”

In other words, generosity cannot be merely ridding sentient beings of poverty; nor can it be freedom from miserliness, since Ÿhr›vakas, pratyekabuddhas, and arhats have this. Engaging in the Deeds of Bodhisattvas says:

They say the perfection of generosity

Is the state of mind that gives to all beings

All your possessions and all your karmic fruits.

Thus generosity must be mental.

亦即透過思惟布施功德與不施過患,將自己的身體、受用、善根毫無慳吝地至誠施

舍,並將布施之果也施予他人,這樣的心修習圓滿,即稱為“ 布施波羅蜜多”,所以說,設法使施舍心增長是很重要的。

This says that the perfection of generosity is a complete familiarity with the thought of giving your body, possessions, root merits, and all their [karmic] results to others; and it means giving these things from the very depths of your heart without any miserliness, while thinking about the various benefits [of giving sincerely] and the drawbacks of not doing so.

與善根有關的四法︰ (1)至誠施予有情; (2)不為嗔恚所壞而保護之; (3)不為希求現世快樂或只為后世不墮惡趣等自利的不良動機所染而清淨之; (4)以隨喜增長之。

Another group of four is discussed: giving away your virtue to sentient beings from the depths of your heart; protecting your virtue from being destroyed by anger; [keeping] the purity of being unsullied by impure motives, such as yearning for the happiness of this life, or merely wanting to prevent your rebirth in the lower realms; increasing your sense of rejoicing. And so on. In fact the text discusses four groups of four. You must train in the way set out in this text.




第15堂 六波羅蜜 (持戒) 2020年3月12日 閱讀頁數: 中文書: 817 - 819, 中文電子書: 406 - 407, 英文書及英文電子書: 579 - 581


第二十天、六度總說

辛二、學習持戒之理
The Practice Of The Perfection Of Ethics

《入行論》中說︰
“ 獲得斷噁心,說為戒度圓。”

As it says in Engaging in the Deeds of Bodhisattvas:
They say the perfection of ethics
Is to gain the abandonment of certain thoughts.

對損害他人的念頭及行為深感厭舍並欲斷除的心即為“ 戒”,這樣的心修習圓滿即是“ 持戒波羅蜜多”

That is, you reverse thoughts of harming others along with the basis of such thoughts, turning them into the thought of abandoning [these actions]. Complete familiarity with this abandonment becomes the perfection of ethics.

戒分三種︰

There are three types of ethics.

(一) 斷除惡行戒(律儀威)
The Ethic Of Refraining From Misdeeds

此戒以三律儀(6)為代表。《菩提道燈論》中說︰
“ 若常具余七,別解脫律儀,
乃有菩薩律,善根余非有。”

An example of this is the three types of vows. The Lamp on the Path says:
Those who hold one of the seven pratimoksha vows
May always hold another vow.
They have the good fortune to receive bodhisattva vows;
Others do not.

此頌似乎明日指示,受菩薩成需要有別解脫戒為前提條件。這是因為考慮到受別解脫戒者是受菩薩戒的殊勝身,如同密宗裡面說比丘是最殊勝的修密之身。實際情況則不能一概而論,因為天與龍也能受菩薩戒。

At first sight this seems to be saying that you must have the ethic of the pratimoksha vows in order to be a candidate for the bodhisattva vows. But this also means, in the tantric context, that the best candidates for practicing the secret tantras are monks and nuns. Although this might also be interpreted as saying that monks and nuns are the best candidates to follow the trainings of the bodhisattvas, this does not cover all cases: there are gods and n›gas who are suitable candidates for the bodhisattva trainings [but they are barred from receiving pratimoksha ordination].


(二) 攝善法戒
The Ethic Of Gathering Virtuous Dharma

具足菩薩戒者對三門善業的一切努力,例如,向殊勝福田頂禮、供養、恭敬、侍奉;作聞、思、修;聽、講正法等等,簡言之,就是能成熟自、他相續的六度萬行。

This ethic means all the effort you make with your three doors to perform virtue while having the bodhisattva vows. This includes making offerings and prostrating before karmically potent recipients; paying respect; offering your services; studying, contemplating, meditating, and practicing; teaching or listening to Dharma; etc. In short, it is all the tasks that belong to the six perfections performed in order to ripen your own and other beings’ mindstreams.


(三) 饒益有情戒
The Ethic Of Working For The Sake Of Sentient Beings

饒益有情的模式分十一種︰
There are eleven further ways of working for the sake of others:

(1)幫助他人的事業與受苦的人;
(2)幫助不懂方法的人;
(3)幫助曾有恩于我的人; (4)幫助危難恐懼之人;
(5)幫助憂傷的人; (6)幫助缺乏資具的人;
(7)幫助求依止的人;
(8)隨順地人的意願而給予幫助;
(9)幫助入正道的人;
(10)幫助入邪道的人;
(11)以神通助人。

(1) helping those who toil and those who suffer;
(2) working for the sake of those blind to the right methods;
(3) working for the sake of people by benefiting them;
(4) working for the sake of those threatened by danger;
(5) working for the sake of those afflicted with miseries;
(6) working for the sake of the deserted;
(7) working for the sake of the homeless;
(8) working for the sake of those without like-minded people;
(9) working for the sake of those on the right path;
(10) working for the sake of those on the wrong path;
(11) working for the sake [of all these people] through miracles.

除“ 以神通助人” 之外,其他十種都是我們能力範圍內可以做到的。簡言之,一切以利他心為動機所作的三門諸業,都可以包括在此戒中。

We can carry out ten of these, the exception being working through miracles. To summarize: this ethic includes all the actions of your three doors motivated by thoughts of benefiting others.




第16堂六波羅蜜 (安忍) 2020年4月16日 閱讀頁數: 中文書: 819 - 827, 中文電子書: 407 - 411, 英文書及英文電子書: 581 - 587


第二十天、六度總說

辛三、學習安忍之理
How to Train In Patience

不受損害與痛苦干擾之心,即忍的體性。我們應當消滅嗔心,如《入行論》中所言︰
Patience is by nature the mind being undisturbed by any harm that is inflicted, or being undisturbed by suffering. It says in Engaging in the Deeds of Bodhisattvas:

“ 頑者如虛空,豈能盡降伏,
若摧此嗔心,則如破眾敵。”

Unruly sentient beings cannot all be subdued,
And they are as vast as space.
If you defeat this angry mind,
It is the same as defeating them all.

如果不消滅嗔心,任由嗔心發展,就會造成十分嚴重的過失,所謂︰
“ 罪惡莫過嗔,難行莫勝忍。”

In other words, anger is what should be defeated. Anger, if not defeated, is most dangerous and heavy. As [Shantideva] said:

There is no sin like hostility;
There is no austerity like patience.

忍分三種︰ (一)耐怨害忍; (二)安受苦忍; (三)定解法忍。
There are three types of patience.


(一)耐怨害忍
The Patience of Remaining Calm in the Face of Your Attackers

耐怨害忍,意思是當仇敵傷害我們時,對之不生嗔恨而修忍辱。為此,我們需要了解嗔恚的過患。嗔是不善之中最壞的一種。據說,每一嗔心可摧毀千劫的善根。在明白了嗔恚過患之后,應該生起精進,時常修忍辱。

When others, such as your enemies, harm you, be patient and do not get angry. Be aware of the drawbacks of anger: for it is the worst of all the non-virtues. It is said that each time you get angry, you destroy the root virtues of one thousand eons. When we come to understand the damage wrought by anger, we will always want to persevere with the meditation on patience.

在正確了解安忍的體性、差別、嗔恚的過患等之后,如果還是讓嗔恚充滿全身,那么所有的修持都將徒勞無功。
Once you thoroughly understand how the types of patience are classified by their nature, plus the drawbacks of anger and so forth, will you ever again let your whole body be possessed by anger?

倘若等我們怒氣全發完之后,再假裝修忍,那有什麼用呢?雖然剛開始比較困難,但經過一段時間的修心,慣熟之后便容易了。
What use is it to pretend to be patient if your anger has already done its work?
It will be difficult at first to be patient; it will become easy if you familiarize yourself through mind training.

受到別人打罵而身心痛苦時,不要去報復,因為那將成為惡趣痛苦的因,而應設法對治嗔恚,修習忍辱。

The wrong way you behave is the most immediate causal factor for your being hit with the club. The root, however, is the evil karma you acquired through hurting people in the past, and so forth. So, since this resulted from the ripening of your own actions through causeand effect, with whom should you be angry?

《入行論》中說︰
“ 于今少許苦,我若不能忍,
地獄之苦因,嗔恚何不除? ”

The Four Hundred Verses says:
The sage sees the delusions,
Not the person with the delusions.

耐怨害忍只能對傷害我們的人修,而無法對幫助我們的人修。傷害愈多,修忍的機會也就愈多,所以,應該將傷害我們的人看成是增長忍辱的助伴。

The patience of remaining calm in the face of your attackers is something you cultivate toward those who would do you harm, not those who would help you.The more people there are who would harm you, the more opportunity you have to practice patience. So you must think that these people are an aid to increase your patience.

(二)安受苦忍
The Patience of Accepting Suffering

除了不貪安樂之外,還應將痛苦視為莊嚴之事而甘之如飴。如以前講“ 修心” 時所說的,應將一切痛苦,例如為法而承受的苦行、疾病的痛楚、不想遭遇的敵人,甚至夢中所受的苦等,都轉成修法的助伴︰將這些苦看成是消盡惡業的因;以此比知他人的苦而對之生起悲心;藉此思惟輪回過患等,來修習安忍。

Not only should you be unattached to happiness, but you should also regard suffering as a form of adornment and use it as a medicine. As in the preceding section on the mind-training practices, whenever you are beset by suffering—while enduring ascetic practices for the sake of Dharma, when sick, when beset by unasked-for enemies, or even when suffering ina nightmare—turn them all into things that will help your Dharma practice; think about how they will use up evil karma; increase thereby your love and compassion for others; think about the faults of samsara; and so on—be patient. When you experience suffering, think, “This replaces the suffering that I would otherwise have experienced in the lower realms.”

發生受人誹謗等不名節之事時,我們必須修忍辱。此外,也應安忍身體保持端正等威儀的苦;安忍供養三寶等因修持佛法所產生的苦;不論外表再醜陋,穿著再粗劣,也都能舍棄對外在華美的追求,安忍因擯除五欲享受所產生的苦;安忍勤修善法疲憊生倦所產生的苦;安忍利益有情所產生的苦,例如︰預見到保護瀕臨被屠殺的有情可能遭受的辛苦而加以忍受;安忍日常事務所產生的苦,如舍棄經商、務農等發財之道所產生的苦而加以忍受等。
安受苦忍的涵蓋面十分廣泛。

Be patient if something unpleasant such as others criticising you happens.Accept sufferings in your normal activities—such as the asceticism of holding an erect posture, etc. Accept the sufferings that go with upholding the Dharma—making offerings to the Three Jewels, etc. Accept the suffering that goes with your livelihood: do without sensual pleasures, abandon ostentatious desirables, and make do with whatever you already have, even though you may look ugly and your clothing be of poor quality, etc. Accept the suffering of practicing virtue till you are worn out. Accept the suffering of working for the sake of sentient beings, such as having patience, although you know you will have to suffer in preventing someone from being killed, etc. And accept the sufferings that go with living hand-to-mouth after abandoning the means of increasing your wealth through commerce, farming, etc. And so on.Thus the patience of accepting suffering is a vast subject.

(三)定解法忍
The Patience to Gain Assurance in the Dharma
定解法忍包括︰修習善行,實踐關要;記持、背誦經論,從而分析處與非處的取舍、三寶的功德、所獲的菩提、往趣菩提之道、無我、以及深廣法藏。在現階段,我們對《道次第》的詞義生起定解,也算是定解法忍。法相學人在辯論時思惟因明的義理,也屬定解法忍。

The Swift Path lamrim talks about this in detail. You gain assurance in the Dharma by: (1) meditating on the key points of practices to perform virtue; (2) learning how to modify your behaviour by memoizing and reciting texts; (3) analyzing the significance of the good qualities of the Three Jewels, the meaning of your goal of enlightenment, the path leading to that goal, what is meant by selflessness, and what the profound and extensive baskets of the teachings mean. Or in this context you could do this by becoming sure of the meaning of the words in this lamrim, for example. This type of patience resembles the comprehension acquired by logicians from their debates.

三種忍之中,第一種只有在傷害出現時才能修;后兩種則在任何時候都可以修。例如,在法會中,我們應忍受聽法時間過久等苦,專心聽聞、思惟法義;上大殿或辯經院時,身威儀應保持肅穆,並忍受飢渴之苦,背誦經論時,應一心思惟文義。不僅如此,就是去做經懺時,也要具備后二種忍。

The first of these three forms of patience is to be exercised when you are provoked by your adversaries. The other two are to be practiced all the time. You should be patient during the teachings—no matter how long they may go on for, and so forth. Listen single-pointedly; think over the meaning. Be careful about your behaviour while attending debating sessions or assembly: endure the hunger and thirst. Let your mind be single pointed when you memorize or recite texts. The last two types of patience always apply, even when you are going off to the village to do a ritual in someone’s house.




第17堂 六波羅蜜 (精進) 2020年5月14日 閱讀頁數: 中文書: 827 - 833, 中文電子書: 411 - 414, 英文書及英文電子書: 587 - 592


辛四、學習精進之理 PERSEVERANCE

這是完成任何善事業的殊勝方便。

Perseverance is, by nature, gladness for performing virtue.

當我們在誦經等時,不要像被征派的驢子被硬拉著往上走,而應興致盎然地從事善業。剛開始的時候先從小事情做起,時間也不要太長,逐漸地修習,使精進力愈來愈大。

Thus do not behave like a stubborn donkey digging in its heels when you should be doing your recitations, etc. Commence these activities by taking great delight in performing virtue. Accustom yourself to doing only a little in the early stages; increase this as your perseverance increases.

三種懈怠 Three Types of Laziness that Hinder Perseverance

精進的障礙為三種懈怠︰
There are three types of laziness that hinder perseverance

(一)推延懈怠 The Laziness of Sloth

將所修的善業往后推延,今天推到明天、明天推到后天,日復一日,不生即刻修法之心。其對治法,應修死無常與暇滿、利大、難得。

This means losing the chance to perform virtue because you keep putting it off. You continually procrastinate because your heart is not in it. As its antidote you must meditate on death and impermanence or on the difficulty of gaining the optimum human rebirth.

(二)貪著劣事懈怠 The Laziness of Craving Evil Pursuits

對追求名利、湊熱鬧、開玩笑、務農、經商、縫紉、紡織等世間俗事與不善業不生厭倦,反而沈溺其中,這類事不能稱為精進,只能說是刻苦。其對治法,當思惟輪回之事毫無意義且為痛苦之因而加以克服……

This is craving mundane pursuits and engaging in them, and in non-virtuous actions as well, because you have not yet tired of them. Reputation, society, idle gossip, farming, business, sewing, and spinning are examples of such things.We do not talk of perseverance in relation to such things: we call it obstinacy.

(三)怯弱懈怠 The Laziness of Defeatism

怯弱懈怠的具體表現,例如心想︰
“ 像我這種人怎么可能成佛? ”
“ 怎么可能利益一切有情? ”
“ 怎么可能布施頭與手足等? ”
其對治法,當思︰ “ 每一種佛法,例如暇滿、難得等所緣類,縱使每一項都需花一生的時間,我也要耐心修習。” 或想︰“ 在這個世界上,那些忙于無謂之事的商人等,為了一點蠅頭小利,尚需吃苦耐勞,如果我把同樣的力氣用在勤修菩提上,一定能夠修成。”

This is a deep-seated form of laziness. Examples of it are:
“How could someone like me achieve buddhahood ? ”
or “How could I work for the sake of all sentient beings?”
or even “How could someone like me possibly sacrifice my body, arms, or legs?”

Feel instead, “I shall be patient even though it may take my whole life to train in just one meditation topic, such as the difficulty of obtaining an optimum human rebirth.” Or think, “I can persevere with such worldly pursuits as trading, and how patient I can be with such hard work for so small a prrofit. Thus if I can manage this much, I must be able to persevere
and work hard enough to achieve enlightenment!”


精進有三種

精進有三種︰ There are three types of perseverance

(一)披甲精進 Armor-like Perseverance

上土道的“ 披甲精進”,是修習為利有情甘入無間地獄之心。有人或許會認為, 這與中土道發解脫輪回之心互相抵觸;事實上並無矛盾。菩薩也應害怕困業煩惱的力量而受生惡趣,否則,別說是利他,就連自利也成就不了。但在已精熟菩提心,已無所畏懼之后,以悲心與願力歡喜受生,就沒有絲毫的痛苦與憂傷。

In this section on the armor-like perseverance, you train yourself to think you could endure going to the HellWithout Respite for the sake of sentient beings. Contrast this with the medium scope, where you develop thoughts of wanting to be free of samsara. You may wonder: are these two opposites? But there is no contradiction. Bodhisattvas are also afraid of being reborn in the lower realms under the power of karma and delusion.
That way they would not even be able to benefit themselves, let alone benefit others. They have continually trained themselves in bodhaichitta and have gained the courage not to be afraid for themselves; instead, they would be most happy to take rebirth there through the power of compassion and prayer. They would not suffer there, nor would they have the slightest mental anguish. This training is called the armor-like perseverance because you face difficulties for the sake of others at a time when the Dharma has so degenerated that people no longer practice such things.

(二)攝善法精進 The Perseverance to Collect Virtuous Things

即勤修積淨、供養、六度萬行等。

This perseverance is collecting [merit], purifying yourself, making offerings, persevering in the practice of the six perfections, etc.

(三)饒益有情精進 The Perseverance of Working for the Sake of Sentient Beings

勤修“ 四攝*” 即其代表,此與“ 饒益有情戒” 相似。

An example of this is persevering with the practice of the four ways of gathering disciples. It is a training that resembles “The Ethic of Working for the Sake of Sentient Beings.”
* 四攝即︰
1、布施 (財布施、法布施、無畏施);
2、愛語(善軟之語);
3、利行(捨棄自利而行他);
4、同事(設身處地站在別人的角度,感受別人的感受)




第28堂 修心七義 (三) 2021年4月16日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 797-805, 中文電子書: 397-401, 英文書及英文電子書: 569-572


第十九天、修心七義之三

(七)二十二條學處
The Twenty-two Pieces of Advice


(1)“ 一貫眾瑜伽”

本法行者不需修許多種善行,而應時時將一切行持與自他平等相換心結合起來。
That is, the practitioner need not perform a variety of virtuous practices, because they are all included within thoughts of interchanging self and others.

(2)“ 一除諸障難”

此平等相換之心能以一當百,治愈一切煩惱疾患。
The thought of interchanging self and others will likewise serve in hundreds of cases, for it is an antidote to all illness and delusion.

(3)“ 初后修二事”

改正動機與回向二事,是一切善行之初與之后所應作的。
Set your motivation before all virtuous actions and follow them with a dedication [of the merit].

(4)“ 二境皆安忍”

不論是苦是樂,都不能舍棄修心的修持。
You must not give up your mind-training practice, come what may, either happiness or sorrow.

(5)“ 舍命護二成”

防護佛法總的三昧耶與修心三昧耶,縱然舍棄生命也在所不惜。
Safeguard the commitments of your mind-training practice, and those of your other practices in general, as you would value your very life.

(6)“ 勤學三難事”

“ 三難事” 是指︰認識煩惱難、修對治難以及斷除難。
There are three ascetic practices that you should know and devote yourself to. They are: the asceticism of identifying delusions, that of applying antidotes, and that of breaking the continuity of the delusions.

(7)“ 取三主要因”

“ 三主要因” 為︰值遇賢善上師、自心堪能、衣食順緣具足。
Pray to be able to assemble the three main causes for practicing Dharma: meeting with the right guru; being mentally fit [to practice]; and having all the necessary conditions, such as food and clothing.

(8)“ 修三不退失”

不可退失信敬上師、歡喜“ 修心”、以正念正知守護學處這三件事。
Do the three things that should not degenerate: holding the guru in awe and respect, rejoicing in mind training, and keeping these pieces of advice through remembrance and vigilance.

(9)“ 具三不舍離”

不應該讓身、口、意三者空閒鬆懈,而應督導三門勤修善業。
Do not leave, your body, speech, and mind idle. Occupy them with virtue.

(10)“ 于境無偏黨”

不可將修心的對象作怨家、親人,或是有情、非有情等的分黨。
Do not divide up the objects of your mind training into “friends” and “enemies,” or into sentient beings and buddhas.

(11)“ 周遍且深透”

修心要像切喀瓦那樣,從心底發起且遍及一切對象。
You must master this practice in the very depths of your heart to include all possible objects, as Geshe Chaekawa did.

(12)“ 特殊尤常修”

對于一些特殊的對象,例如難修忍辱的怨敵,以及上師、父母、室友等,要單獨分
開來專修。
In order to completely master it, emphasize meditating on enemies with whom you find it difficult to be patient, and so on; also reserve a special place for objects that could prove [karmically] dangerous for you, such as your guru, parents, and roommates.

(13)“ 不持眾緣備”

修法不應考慮衣、食等順緣是否具備,不要淪為下面頌文所說的那種人︰
“ 腹飽日暖法相儼,惡緣臨頭變俗人。”
Continue to meditate, regardless of whether you have all the necessary conditions such as food and clothes. Do not let this apply to you: Looking like a practitioner when your belly’s full and the sun’s shining, And an ordinary type as soon as things go wrong.

(14)“ 今當修主要”

我們現下所修的菩提心等法,雖然難生,卻利益宏大。修這些法是為了成辦自、他
二利,而非為了現世的目的。
From today meditate on bodhichitta, which is hard to develop but most beneficial. You must do this in order to work for your own and others’ sakes and not for the things of this life. You should work mainly toward your next life rather than this one.


(15)“ 遠離六顛倒”
The text continues, “Don’t misunderstand.”

六顛倒依次為︰
(1) “ 忍辱顛倒”,能忍受世間俗務的辛苦,反而對修法缺乏毅力、吃不了苦。
(1) Mistaken patience: this is being tolerant of problems met while doing something worldly but having no courage to face the difficulties encountered in Dharma practice.

(2) “ 味著顛倒”,對聞、思、修等法味不知愛樂,反而對世俗言談、商務、軍事等
極感興趣。
(2) Mistaken taste: you have to taste the Dharma through study, contemplation, meditation, etc. When you have no conception of Dharma but can understand the concepts of worldly conversation, business, military affairs, etc., and can analyze things, you have tasted the worldly. This is tasting the wrong thing.

(3)“ 悲心顛倒”,對有罪之人不修悲心,反而對為法苦行者心生悲憫。
(3) Mistaken compassion: this is not meditating on compassion for those who sin yet having compassion for those who undergo difficulties for the sake of Dharma.

(4)“ 希求顛倒”,心中不求修清淨法,反而垂慕世間的快樂、財勢。
(4) Mistaken aspiration: not wishing to practice the pure Dharma but aspiring to worldly happiness, power, and wealth.

(5) “ 照顧顛倒”,不教學生們能利益后世的正法,反而讓他們學習經商、訴訟等對
后世極有害的事情。
(5) Mistaken yearnings: this is encouraging people who trust in you not to practice Dharma, which would benefit their future lives, but encouraging them instead to study business, the law, etc., which will prove very harmful for their future lives.


(6)“ 隨喜顛倒”,對自他之善與他人的快樂不生隨喜,反而對不善與仇人之隨喜。
(6)Mistaken rejoicing: this is not rejoicing in your own or others’ virtue or in others’ happiness. Not to do this is non-virtuous. Also, mistaken rejoicing is to rejoice when your enemies suffer.

(16)“ 莫輕嘗便舍”

修善行要做到鬆緊有度、從長遠考量。
In other words, when you practice virtue, you should always maintain the right pitch, neither too intense, nor too relaxed, so as to last.

(17)“ 斬絕專修習”

“ 修心” 與自相續也要做到“ 徹骨透石”。
Your mind training should wear down your mindstream as a rock will wear down a bone.

(18)“ 觀察令解脫”

對修心法應以尋、伺作觀察修,從而斷疑解惑。
Train yourself thoroughly through analytic meditation on mind training by means of both conceptualisation and analysis.

(19)“ 不思有所恃”

為了利益有情而修行是我們的本份,而且自己也已經立誓要這么作,所以不能因此而居功自傲。
Working for the sake of sentient beings is only right, and something you have already promised to do. So do not make a big deal of it to anyone.

(20)“ 稟性不暴戾”

不可暴躁生氣,不要因為當眾受辱等而發怒。
Suppose someone belittles you in front of others. Do not get angry and so on; that is, do not be spiteful.

(21)“ 喜怒莫輕發”

不要像春天的天空須臾變化,不要隨著細小的外緣變化而時喜時怒。
Do not be as changeable as spring weather, changing from happiness to sadness for the slightest reason.

(22)“ 勿著于聲譽”

幫助別人時,不要指望別人回饋。
Do not offer your help in the hope of receiving praise and so forth.

上述內容為修心學處。
This completes the advice.




第18堂 六波羅蜜 (禪定-上)2020年6月18日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 833 - 843, 中文電子書: 414 - 418, 英文書及英文電子書: 592 - 599


第二十一天、奢摩他

庚一、別學后二度之理
In Particular, The Way to Train in the Last Two Perfections

此節分兩部分︰
(辛一)學習靜慮體性奢摩他之理;
(辛二)學習智慧體性毗缽舍那之理。
There are two subheadings here:
(1) how to train in the very essence of concentration mental quiescence;
(2) how to train in the very essence of wisdom special insight.

辛一、學習靜慮體性奢摩他之理
How to train In the Very Essence of Concentration Mental Quiescence

這部分又分六小節︰
(壬一)依止奢摩他資糧;
(壬二)正修奢摩他之理;
(壬三)依此修九住心之理;
(壬四)由六力成辦之理;
(壬五)彼中具四種作意之理;
(壬六)由此生起正奢摩他之理。

This has six further headings:
(1) cultivating the prerequisites for mental quiescence;
(2) the actual way to achieve mental quiescence;
(3) taking this way as the basis, how to achieve the nine mental states;
(4) the way the mental states are achieved through the six powers;
(5) how there are four types of mental process;
(6) the way true mental quiescence develops [from this point].

奢摩他本身的體性與外道所講的相同。雖然外道認為奢摩他是色界定與無色界定修
持中最低的一種,但如果懷著出離心來修,即是解脫的因;懷著皈依心來修,即成正
法。假如缺乏奢摩他,那么顯教的空性與密宗的生圓次第等高級的“ 修所成” 証悟也
無從生起。想要生起任何一種顯密三摩地功德,都需要有奢摩他,這就像想倒水不能沒有盛水的容器。因此,先成就堅固的奢摩他是很重要的。

Mental quiescence is something we share with non-Buddhists. The most inferior forms of it are the non-Buddhist practices of the form-realm dhyana states of concentration and the practices involving the formless realm.We could turn such practices into a cause for our liberation by carrying them out in conjunction with thoughts of renunciation. We could also make them into Dharma by practicing them in conjunction with taking refuge.Without mental quiescence we will not develop any of the great realizations that come through the sutric types of meditation on emptiness, or tantric types on the generation and completion stages, and so on. Any good quality you may wish to develop through one of the single pointed
concentrations in either sutra or tantra is out of the question if you do not have mental quiescence. Mental quiescence is like a container to hold the water you have poured into it. It is therefore vital to develop firm mental quiescence in the early stages.

不僅如此,當我們成就奢摩他之時,很容易就能改善修暇滿、難得、無常等的証德。
《菩提道燈論》中說生起奢摩他是為了成就神通,這不過是舉其一例而已。生起者奢摩他的主要用意,如寂天菩薩所說︰

“ 知具止勝觀,能滅諸煩惱,故應先求止。”

You must develop special insight into the understanding of emptiness in order to sever the roots of samsara, or achieve mere liberation; but, to do this, you must have already gained firm mental quiescence. In order to see things as they are—and clearly—you must first have stability and firmness. Suppose you are viewing a mural. Two prerequisites are needed to dispel the darkness [obscuring the painting]: a bright butterlamp and no drafts that would make it flicker. Similarly, if you have already achieved mental quiescence, it is much easier to develop realization through meditation on everything from the difficulty of gaining an optimum human rebirth to meditation on impermanence. Atisha’s Lamp on the Path speaks of the development of mental quiescence in order to achieve clairvoyant powers.
Be that as it may, the fundamental thing to understand about all this was
said by Shantideva:

Knowing that through special insight having great mental quiescence
You will destroy your delusions,
First seek mental quiescence.

這才是成就奢摩他的用意所在。因此,最初應當先成就奢摩他。
再者,奢摩他不一定要放在“ 發心” 之后修,在“ 發心” 之前亦可。如果奢摩
他成就,修三乘的任何一種法,都會有極大的進展。

Thus, you must achieve mental quiescence early on. You need not necessarily develop it only after achieving bodhichitta, because you may gain it either before or after this achievement. If you manage to achieve mental quiescence, you will make great progress in your meditations on any of the practices of the three vehicles.

壬一、依止奢摩他資糧
Cultivating the Prerequisites for Mental Quiescence

依止者摩他資糧有六個方面︰
There are six of these:

(一)住合宜處
(1) dwelling in a conducive place

所住的地方,當選先德曾經蒞臨加持過的,因為對初業行人來講,是由地加持人。
如果沒有這樣的條件,至少這一地區沒有破誓者居住、也未曾發生過擾亂僧團這類事情。不要住在有野獸、強盜、兇猛非人出沒的地方,而應住在有加持力的“ 賢善處
”。如果我們自恃膽大而隨便居住,很有可能會受到外來的侵害。

The place where you live should be a consecrated one where, for example, the feet of saints of the past have trod. When beginners dwell in such a place, the place itself will be a blessing for them. If you cannot find such a place, wherever you stay should not be the dwelling of someone who has, for example, broken his vows or caused dissension within the Sangha. It should also be a wholesome place—that is, not a place where there are beasts of prey, thieves, or wrathful spirits. It should also have people willing to act as benefactors. If it is not like this you may think you can live there in safety, but you will later come to grief.

(二)少欲
(2) having few wants

對衣食等不求好、不求多。
Having few wants means having no attachment to large quantities of fine clothes, good food, etc.

(三)知足
(3) being content

對獲得粗劣的衣食應當知足。
Contentment is making do with the bare necessities of food and clothing.

(四)戒律清淨
(4) having pure ethics


總的來說,戒是一切功德的基礎;特別來講,息滅微細的內散亂,先要斷除粗顯的
外散亂,如果分別粗重,內心是無法保持寧靜的,所以要以戒來制約、平息身口的惡行。

In general, ethics are the basis of all good qualities. Pacification of the subtle internal distractions depends on the abandonment of gross external distractions. Ethics restrain and pacify your misdeeds of both body and speech, and do this by taking you out of the mental yoke of your grossest conceptual thoughts.

(五)斷諸雜務
(5) abandoning the many demands of society

如果雜務纏身,我們的時間就會花在無意義之事和談話上面。為了生起靜慮,必須
做到少事少業以減輕散亂。少欲知足,就自然能做到少事少業。

This means restricting the time you spend on meaningless actions, conversations,
etc. You must have very little to do with such meaningless actions in order to be completely undistracted by them. Development of concentration is much more important, and so you will automatically have little to do with these things, because you have few wants and have contentment.

(六)斷除貪等分別
(6) completely abandoning conceptual thoughts such as desire

我們應思惟五欲過患與無常的道理來克服貪等分別。如果具足上述諸因努力修習,
成就奢摩他當不遲于六個月。
Turn your mind away from these thoughts by thinking about the drawbacks of desire and about impermanence.
When you have fulfilled all the above prerequisites and make effort in your practice, you will take no more than six months to achieve mental quiescence.




第19堂 六波羅蜜 (禪定-下) 2020年7月17日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 844-859, 中文電子書: 418-425, 英文書及英文電子書: 599-611


第二十一天、奢摩他
辛一、學習靜慮體性奢摩他之理
How to train In the Very Essence of Concentration Mental Quiescence

壬二、正修奢摩他之理
The Actual Way To Achieve Mental Quiescence

成辦三摩地的教授,無過于彌勒諸論、《五地論》、中觀派《修習次第》等大論中的所開示。因此,我們應常尋求這些教授來修。如果將這些大論當作只足用來講說的法,而看重一些與大論不符的上師教授,或杲簡短的密籍、筆記、夾注之類,宗喀巴大師在《道次第廣論》奢摩他章結偈中,說這類人不不在有處求而偏在無處求,這樣是找不到修行教授的。

In other words, they say you must cultivate the eight adjustments, which are antidotes to the five pitfalls. There are no better instructions on how to achieve single-pointed concentration than those to be found in the classical treatises—the works of Maitreya, Asanga’s studies on the various levels, texts on the middle way and its stages of meditation, etc.We must seek this sort of instruction and then meditate on it. Instead of doing this we might put a higher value on some lama’s oral instruction that does not accord with the Dharma as presented in the classics, or we might value short miscellanies on spells, or class notes, short pamphlets, etc. This is searching for something in a place where it cannot be found and not where it can.However, there is no danger of this happening if we follow chapter and verse the section on mental quiescence in Je Tsongkapa’s Great Stages of the Path. So if you do not refer back to these classical treatises, you might put your trust in what any lama you come across may say, claiming these to be “instructions.”

大到密宗生圓次第,小到基礎三摩地,都要依據真實可信的論典中所說的奢摩他教授來修,斷五過、依八行是必不可少的。 This applies to the generation and completion stages of the secret tantras down to the most trivial level of concentration. All are impossible to achieve without this instruction on how to achieve mental quiescence, whose source is the Shastras and which deals with the methods for extricating yourself from the five pitfalls by cultivating the eight adjustments.
第一過︰懈怠
The First Pitfall: Laziness

懈怠的對治有四種︰
1)認識三摩地功德之“ 信” ;
2)希求三摩地之“ 欲” ;
3)努力修三摩地之“ 勤” ;
4)以及努力的結果“ 輕安”。

This has four antidotes:
(1) faith due to seeing the good qualities of single pointedconcentration;
(2) yearning and wishing for single-pointed concentration;
(3) perseverance in seeking single-pointed concentration;
(4) the result of seeking single-pointed concentration—meditative suppleness.

在成就奢摩他之后,修善行時心與所緣對象將緊密結合,由此能迅速獲得悉地;共同的神通、神變等也是依奢摩他成就的;睡眠將變成三摩地;煩惱減輕;尤其是從依止善知識法直至生圓次第的一切道將快速、順易地生起。

If you develop mental quiescence, you will be able to focus your attention on a subject quite firmly whenever you perform some virtuous practice, and because of this firmness will soon gain actual attainments, even the common clairvoyances and so forth; your sleep will become single-pointed concentration; your delusions will become very slight indeed. More
importantly, it will be easier for you to quickly develop [realization] into the path, from devotion to your spiritual guide all the way up to the generation and completion stages. And so on.

我們應當思惟這些三摩地功德而生起認識三摩地功德的“ 信”。獲得“ 信” 之后,就能依次引發“ 欲”、“ 勤”與“ 輕安”,這四種有因果關係。

Think about these good qualities. You will then have faith due to seeing the good qualities of single-pointed concentration.With this faith you will achieve the wish and perseverance to seek single-pointed concentration. With these you will wish to have meditative suppleness. This is how these four antidotes act as causes and effects—the latter ones developing from the earlier in an orderly fashion.
第二過︰忘失教授
The Second Pitfall: Forgetting The Instruction

這裡講的“ 忘失教授” 意為對所緣境失去正念,這是修三摩地時的最大障礙。

This is what we term no longer recalling the meditation device. It is highly damaging to the practice of single-pointed concentration.

奢摩他當用意識來修、而非眼識,五世達賴喇嘛等眾多大德均曾駁斥用眼識的模式。
For mental quiescence must be achieved with the mind, not with the eyes. The Great Fifth Dalai Lama, and so on, have repeatedly refuted that mental quiescence must be achieved with the eyes, not the mind.

我們觀想從頂上上師分出一尊上師釋迦牟尼,約拇指大小,停在正對自己眉間或臍間的位置,緣此而修,或觀想自己轉成釋迦牟尼,緣此而修。

From your guru, visualized on the crown of your head, emerges Guru Shakyamuni, about the size of your thumb. He comes to rest in front of you, about level with the gap between your eyebrows. Alternatively, you could put him level with your navel—whichever you prefer. Or you could visualize that you transform into Shakyamuni.

在修奢摩他時,除了吃飯、睡覺及大小便之外,其它時間都要用于修持,就像不停地摩擦燧木一樣,應當持續不斷地修上一年半載等。如果修一種所緣覺得煩了,便換另一種所緣,或是隔個三天便休息一陣子,這樣是修不成的。

In other words, fix the mind on the one visualization when you meditate. You will not achieve mental quiescence if you change the visualization. Suppose you rub two sticks together; you will not make a fire if you shift to another stick. Further, you must meditate continually for mental quiescence, except when you eat, sleep, or move your bowels, just as you have to rub the sticks together without interruption until they catch fire. Do this continuously until you achieve mental quiescence—in six months, a year, or whatever. You will not attain it if you get sick of it and move on to something else, or if you take a couple of days off to rest, and so on.

正念具有三種差別︰
(1)境差別︰正念只緣熟悉的事物,因此,所緣境必須是以前曾經見過、並熟記在心的; (2)行相差別︰不忘所緣相,使之持續現起。譬如,當我們飢餓時,會對食物記憶猶新;(3)作用差別︰除所緣之外,心不流散于別的境上。

In other words, memory necessarily has three properties. It must distinguish its object—that is, you have previously looked at your meditation device and familiarized your mind’s eye with its aspects. Subsequently, when you direct your mind to these aspects, memory necessarily has the property of retention—that is, you have not forgotten these aspects of the meditation device, and they present themselves to you continually. This is like your vivid recollection of food when you are hungry. Lastly, memory has another property of the function it performs—the mind is made not to stray or unfocus from the object it is directed toward.

因此,心中觀想住于面前的佛像等,這是所緣,應以堅固行相保持所緣而不散亂,並且只允許這一種所緣在心中現起。

If these three are present, you will be able to visualize the form of, say, the Victorious One, clearly in front of you, in your mind’s eye. Do not become distracted—retain a tight hold on the visualization. You must imagine the visualization and nothing else.
第三過︰沉掉
The Third Pitfall: Excitement And Dullness

在正修中以正念保持所緣境的時候,會發生第三種過失── “ 沈沒” 與“ 掉舉”。分不清沈沒、昏昧、掉舉這三件事,就像對冤家仇人認識不清,所以先要加以認識。

You will fall prey to the third pitfall—excitement and dullness—during your actual meditation period while recalling your meditation device. If you do not differentiate between dullness, mental fog, and excitement, it will be like not recognizing enemies bent on murdering you; since they are great faults, you must recognize them.

---昏昧 Mental fog ---
昏昧,是一種身心沉重、想睡覺的心理障礙。它可以是無記的,也可以是不善的;
但不可能是善的。昏昧是沈沒之因。

Mental fog can be either non virtuous or neutral. It obscures the consciousness, weighing down both mind and body, as when you want to go to sleep. It acts as a cause for dullness and is never virtuous.
---沈沒 Dullness---
沈沒有粗、細兩種。當以正念保持所緣境時,有“ 住分” 但無“ 明分”,為粗沈沒;所緣行相未失去、“ 住分” 與“ 明分” 俱存,但因行相力鬆弛導致“ 明分” 無力,為細沈沒。這是修止的主要障礙。

There are two types of dullness: subtle and coarse. When you recall your meditation device, its image may be steady but unclear. This is coarse dullness. Subtle dullness is as follows: you have not lost the retained features of the visualization, you even have steadiness and clarity of image, but the force of your retention has slackened, and its clarity is not intense. Subtle dullness is the main obstruction to meditation.


---掉舉 Lack of focus and Excitement---
掉舉能使心流散于可愛境或貪欲境,而回憶起可愛境或貪欲境,就像白天看戲、晚
上仍能清晰地回憶起戲中景象一樣。

Beautiful objects or the objects of your attachment unfocus the mind. Thus they are the beautiful signs referred to here. Suppose you watch an opera one day and that night you vividly recall the scene: this is an example of recalling an attractive object of your attachment.

修奢靡他時,不論心流散于可愛境或不可愛境,或流散于布施、頂禮等善境,兩者都是修止的障礙,均應加以防止。

when you meditate on mental quiescence, your mental state will be interrupted by the two other types of lack of focus: unfocusing due to either pleasant or unpleasant objects; and lack of focus due to, for example, recalling some generosity you may have performed, prostrations you may have made, etc. When you meditate for mental quiescence, you have to put a stop to these forms of unfocusing whenever they occur.
第四過︰不作行
The Fourth Pitfall: Non adjustment

當沈沒或掉舉發生時,不加以對治是一種過失。 When you get excited or dull, one of the antidotes—non adjustment— becomes a pitfall and it has its own antidote.

如果這樣做不能解決問題,則應放棄所緣而設法使退沒的心振奮起來。此時可以思惟暇滿、利大、難得,或思惟三寶功德、依止善知識功德以及菩提心功德等,使心振奮起來。

If the problem does not then go away and your mind becomes depressed when you resume the visualization, try a method to be uplifted, or cheer yourself up by contemplating how difficult it is to find the most beneficial optimum human rebirth. Or you could contemplate the good qualities of the Three Jewels, study the benefits of devoting yourself to a spiritual guide, contemplate the benefits of bodhichitta, etc. These will uplift your mind.

如果這樣作還不能解決問題,便應使用強硬的方法︰先在心間觀想自心成一團白光,然后口念“ 呸” 字,同時觀想光團從頭頂上出去、升到高空,與虛空混為一體。根據需要重覆數次。

If your dullness will still not go away, employ a more forceful means of removing it. Visualize your mind as being a white light at your heart. As you utter the syllable phat, your mind comes out of the fontanelle on the top of your head and penetrates the depths of space.Think that your mind and space have become inextricably mixed. Do this as many times as seems best.

如果問題依然存在,便應下座,設法消除產生沈沒的因,如昏昧、睡眠、昏暗心態等。可以住在清涼處或登高遠望、來回散步、用水洗臉等方法來消除。等清醒后,便應如前繼續修所緣。
If still the problem will not go away, terminate your meditation session. Mental fog is causing you to develop dullness. Use some means to make the mental fog, sleepiness, or grogginess go away. Settle down in some cool spot, go for a walk on some high, open place, go for a visit, splash water on your face, and so on. If these clear your mind, resume your visualization as before.

細掉舉是指未失去所緣境的心散亂,當收心太緊時,就會產生這個問題,所以應稍稍將行相放鬆。如果仍然無效而照樣散亂,即生較粗的掉舉,這是因為心情興奮產生的,所以,應避免過于興奮。

Subtle excitement is when you do not lose track of the meditation device but the mind is distracted. When this happens, the fault is that the mind is too tight. Slightly loosen your retention of the image. If this does not help and your mind is still distracted, you now have a coarse form of excitement. This has developed only because of your happy state of mind,
so you should not increase your happiness any more.

如果依然無效,則應使用強硬斷除掉舉的方法,這與思慮多者所修的數息觀相似。呼吸時,心想“ 呼出”、“ 吸進”,並默數為一,在心裡記數。剛開始的時候,可能只能數到三、四次就無法繼續了,此時應從頭開始。如果能夠數二十一遍保持心不散亂,即達成就第一住心的標準。

If this does not clear up the problem, employ a more forceful method to rid yourself of excitement. Because your conceptual thinking has increased, you should do the following visualization when you breathe in or out. When you breathe, think, “I am breathing out” or “I am breathing in.” Also think, “That’s the first time,” and continue to count mentally the number of times you have been breathing out and in. At first you will only be able to manage up to three or four cycles. Just resume counting from one again. Being able to keep this up till you get to twenty-one without the mind becoming distracted is the criterion for having achieved the first mental state.


第五過︰作行
The fifth pitfall: Readjustment

在沒有沉掉兩者的情況下修對治也是一種過失,其對治法即八行中的第八行──不
作行之平等舍。
When you have put an end to your dullness or excitement, readjustment becomes a pitfall, although it is in fact an antidote. The antidote to readjustment is number eight of the adjustments, nonadjustment. You must cultivate this equanimity.




第20堂 六波羅蜜 (正修奢摩他) 2020年8月14日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 860-867, 中文電子書: 425-428, 英文書及英文電子書: 611-615


第二十一天、奢摩他

正修奢摩他之法

現下講正修奢摩他的方法。我們先要具足奢摩他的資糧,如具足功德的修行處等。然后,以毗盧七法坐在安適座墊上。觀想從頂上上師分出一尊釋迦牟尼,約拇指大小,住于正對自己臍間的空中。

Now I shall discuss the way to pursue this practice. Fulfill the prerequisites for the development of mental quiescence—for example, a location that has the five characteristics. Then sit on a comfortable mat in Vairochana’s posture with the seven features. From the visualization of your guru on the crown of your head, imagine that a Shakyamuni image splits off. Place it in space at about the level of your navel.


如先前所述,我們必須以正念保持所緣境不讓它溜走,如果粗、細沉掉任何一種快要產生時,立即以正知覺察出來,各別以對治法加以阻絕。沉掉斷了的時候,就不再用功對治,而一心安住于所緣境。此外,必須要保住極為明顯而且有力的明分。

As in the detailed section on mental quiescence above, the meditation device is retained by your memory not losing the image. At that stage you are set to to fall prey to whichever of sutble or coarse dullness or excitement. As soon as you detect these through vigilance, immediately apply the appropriate antidote and put a stop to them. Do not employ any antidote after cutting short either dullness or excitement: just remain single-pointedly on the visualization while still maintaining most lucid, vivid clarity.

壬三、依此修九住心之理
Taking This As The Basis, How To Achieve The Nine Mental States

想修定的人必須要有住心的體驗,為此先要了解九住心的內容:
If you wish to meditate you must experience mental states for yourself. In order to do that you must know what these nine mental states are:

(一)內住心
Fixing The Mind

由聽聞上師所說所緣境教授的力量成辦。
This is achieved by the power of studying the instruction on visualization with your guru.

(二)續往心
Fixation With Some Continuity

修習了一段時間之后,心住于所緣境的時間略能延長。
After meditating in this way you are able to evoke the image and can even make it persist a while.

(三)安住心
Patchy Fixation

當心散亂離開所緣境時,能立即了知,然后重新修補,安任于所緣境,故稱“ 安住心”。
Though the image basically persists, the mind becomes distracted from the visualization. But you are immediately aware of this and “patch up your fixation” on the meditation device.

(四)近住心
Good Fixation

這一階段能生起強有力的正念安住于所緣境。由於從此所緣境不再喪失,所以要勝過前面三個階段。雖然所緣境不會喪失,但有強力的沉掉,所以需要運用沉掉的對治法。

You have developed powerful memory and you can fix your mind on the meditation device. From now on it is impossible for you to lose the meditation device, and so this state is far more forceful than the previous three. Just the same, while you are not losing the meditation device, you fall prey to the strongest forms of dullness and excitement, and you must apply antidotes to these two.

(五)調伏心
Becoming Disciplined

在第四階段,如果攝心太猛,極有可能犯細沈沒。所以,當生起有力正知而作檢查,並思惟三摩地的功德讓心活潑起來。
In the fourth state, the mind is overly knotted up inside. Now at the fifth, the greatest danger is from subtle dullness.Here you develop powerful vigilance. Vigilance stands on guard; you think this [vigilance] is a quality of single-pointed concentration, and it buoys up your mind.

(六)寂靜心
Becoming Peaceful

在第五階段,如果讓心過于活躍,便有生細掉舉之險。一旦產生細掉舉,必須生起能了知它的有力正加、視細掉舉為過失而消除之。
In the fifth state, the mind has been uplifted rather too much, and under these circumstances the greatest danger now is from subtle excitement. When subtle excitement arises, you develop a more powerful form of vigilance in order to detect it. You see that even this subtle excitement is a fault and that you need to prevent it.

(七)最寂靜心
Becoming Very Pacified

在第七階段,由於正念力與正知力均已圓滿,沉掉難以生起,但仍必須將細沉掉視為過患,生起精進力,盡力加以斷除。
In the seventh state, it is very difficult to develop dullness or excitement because the power of your vigilance and memory has been perfected. You develop the power of perseverance at this point, for you wish to abandon dullness and excitement as much as possible - because you have looked into the damage that they cause.

(八)專注一趣
Becoming Single-pointed

在這階段,沉掉就像被擊敗的敵人,它們先是有力量,然后力量逐漸減弱,最後徹底喪失。
At the beginning you apply the antidote of memory, and though this involves a slight effort, you are then able to pursue the whole length of the meditation session without the subtlest excitement or dullness.

(九)等持
Fixed Absorption

此階段具有“ 無功用運轉作意”。由於第八階段不斷地練習,此時不加功用而自然地成就。
The fixation is now effortless. You spontaneously achieve this effortlessness by repeated cultivation of familiarity with the eighth state. You need not exert the slightest effort to slip into single-pointed concentration, just as a person who is good at reciting verses can start a familiar passage. You are now completely absorbed in single-pointed concentration.




第21堂 發菩提心利益 2020年9月18日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 696-720, 中文電子書: 353-362, 英文書及英文電子書: 499-516


第十六天、發菩提心利益

是什麼力量使我們在輪回中流轉呢· 是業。業則由煩惱產生,更明確地說,是由煩惱根本無明所產生。為了根除無明,我們需要生起增上慧學;為了生起增上慧學,又需要有定學與戒學做為前提,所以說,戒是功德的基礎。

What is it that makes you go round on the wheel of samsara? It is karma, and this karma is developed through delusion. Among delusion, ignorance is the root, so ignorance produces karma. To root out ignorance you have to practice the high training of wisdom. You have to prepare yourself for this practice with the high trainings of single-pointed concentration and ethics; this is why ethics is said to be the basis of any good qualities.

大師又說,在修煩惱對治法時,我們先要讓煩惱現前,然后認清其體性,再來修對治法。這一方法使我們在散亂時也能體認煩惱。

When you are still at the stage of applying antidotes to delusions, you should allow a delusion to develop and apply its antidote only after identifying it. The whole point of doing this is to eventually be able to identify delusions even when you are distracted.

丁三、于上士這次第修心
Training The Mind In The Great-scope Stages Of The Path

此科分三大段︰
(戊一)顯示人大乘門惟是發心及其利益; (<—今堂主要內容)
(戊二)發菩提心之理;
(戊三)既發心已學行之理。

This has three headings:
(1) teaching that the development of bodhichitta is the sole gateway to the Mahayana, and teaching its benefits as well; (<—Today content)
(2) how to develop bodhichitta;
(3) how to set about training yourself after the development of bodhichitta.

戊一、顯示人大乘門惟是發心及其利益
Teaching That The Development Of Bodhichitta Is The Sole Gateway To The Mahayana, And Teaching Its Benefits As Well

我們的正行道,是修上士道之菩提心,下、中士道是其前行,學習總菩薩行是其結行。學上士道先要生起歡喜心,所以此處根據軌炬,按照《文殊口授》先講發心利益。

Since the first thing to be done in the study of the path of the great scope is to rejoice, the oral tradition deals first with the benefits [of bodhichitta]. What follows is according to the way in which these benrfits are discussed in Mañjushrı’s Own Words.

發心利益共有十種︰
I will speak about these benefits under ten headings:

(己一)顯示入大乘門惟是發心;
(己二)獲佛子名;
(己三)映蔽聲聞;
(己四)成就最勝福田;
(己五)易圓滿資糧;
(己六)速淨罪障;
(己七)成就所願;
(己八)損害與中斷不侵;
(己九)速疾圓滿一切地道;
(己十)成就出生眾生無余安樂之良田。

(1) teaching that the only way to enter the Mahayana is to develop bodhichitta;
(2) you gain the name “child of the victors”;
(3) you outshine the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas;
(4) you become a supreme object of offering;
(5) you amass an enormous accumulation of merit with ease;
(6) you rapidly purify sins and obscurations;
(7) you accomplish whatever you wish;
(8) you are not bothered by harm or hindrances;
(9) you soon complete the entire path and its levels;
(10) you become a fertile source of every happiness for other beings.

己一、顯示人大乘門惟是發心
(1) Teaching That The Only Way To Enter The Mahayana Is To Develop Bodhichitta

是否進入大乘之列,取決于相續中是否生起菩提心。

The thing that determines whether you have joined the ranks of the Mahayana is whether you have developed bodhichitta in your mindstream.

我們應當審視自己有沒有可能在相續中發起[ 無勵力] 的菩提心,如果有,當然最好;否則也要看看是否能發起[ 有勵力] 的菩提心;再不然,就要問問自己是否有可能〔通達〕菩提心。連一座菩提心所緣都不修,單是勤修本尊、猛念密咒,這種辛苦是無益的徒勞,極為可惜。

We must see if we think we can genuinely develop this mind in our mindstreams, as this is the best thing we can do. Failing that, we must see if we can gain some sort of contrived experience of it, or failing even this, see if we can gain a low level of insight into it. This is why they say that if we do not pursue this as one of the topics of a particular meditation session, effort in only deity meditation or recitation of the mantra will just be pointless hard work. What a great pity.

己二、獲佛子名
(2) You Gain The Name “Child Of The Victors”

縱然具有神通變化、通曉五明、現証空性、斷盡煩惱等功德,如果未發菩提心,就不是菩薩與佛于,也不入大乘之儕;如果相續中發起此心,就算是豬、狗等畜生,或是愚笨如驢、沒有其他任何功德的人,也歸入大乘之列。一有人發菩提心,大地就會震動,諸佛寶座也將顫動。因為大地是有情共業的力量所感,發菩提心者將引導無量有情、動搖輪回,大地無法承受而產生震動。

So, whether or not you become a child of the victorious ones depends on this very thing. If you have not developed bodhichitta, you are not a bodhisattva, or a child of the victors, although youmay be clairvoyant, able to work miracles, learned in the five sciences, have gained direct understanding of emptiness, or have completely abandoned all delusions. You will not have joined the ranks of the Mahayana. But if you have developed this thought in your mindstream, you have joined the Mah›y›na ranks, even though you are an animal, for example, a dog or pig, or even a simpleton without any other accomplishments and as stupid as a donkey.When you develop bodhichitta, the earth quakes and all the thrones of the buddhas shake. Because the great earth was produced by the collective karma of sentient beings, when someone develops bodhichitta it proves too much for the earth, which then quakes because that person with bodhichitta will lead many sentient beings and cause a commotion in samsara.

過去我們曾有許多神通變化,到頭來卻沒有因此獲得任何利益,所以,理解[ 菩提道次第] 要比得神通更為可喜。神通變化既不稀奇也無大益,我們每次死亡至中有階段,即得神通。

We have in the past attained many types of clairvoyance and miraculous powers that did us no good in the long run; it is better to understand the lamrim.Being clairvoyant and having miraculous powers is neither unusual nor beneficial: it is said we receive these powers in the bardo after we leave each rebirth.

己三、映蔽聲聞
(3) You Outshine The Shravakas And Pratyekabuddhas

相續中發起菩提心者,即便不能學菩薩行,但因其相續中有菩提心的緣故,仍不失[ 佛子] 之名,既超勝一切善資糧珍寶,也能勝過聲聞、緣覺眾的金飾,又能消除輪回的貧窮。

Similarly, those who have developed bodhichitta in their mindstreams may not be capable of training themselves in the tasks of the victorious ones’ children, but they are still called children of the victors because of the bodhichitta in their mindstreams; of all precious collections of virtue, theirs is the best. It will even outshine such golden jewelry as the [merit and wisdom] collections of the Shravakas and pratyekabuddhas. And they say that all samsaric poverty is dispelled by it.

因此,若想認識什麼是八萬四千法蘊的心要,除此菩提心外,沒有他法。阿底峽尊者曾教導說︰[ 舍棄現世! 專修慈心、悲心與菩提心! ]

Bodhichitta alone should be recognized as the essence of the 84,000 heaps of the Dharma. As Atisha said, “Give up this life! Meditate only on love, compassion, and bodhichitta.”

己四、成就最勝福田
(4) You Become A Supreme Object Of Offering

相續中發起菩提心的人,當成為人天的最上供養田,所謂[人天世間應禮敬]。
When you develop bodhichitta in your mindstream, “Humans and the worldly gods fold their hands in respect…” In other words, you become a supreme object for the offerings of gods and humans.

此心生起時,梵天、帝釋等都會前來供養,使發菩提心者容光煥發,並幫助他們實現一切願望。因為正等覺佛是由菩薩產生的,而菩薩是由菩提心所產生,所以據說連佛也要恭敬菩薩。

Brahma, Indra, etc., come and make offerings when a person develops this mind. They lend them their brilliance and help them to fulfill their wishes. It is also said that even the buddhas respect bodhisattvas because such fully enlightened beings were once bodhisattvas themselves, and being a bodhisattva depends on bodhichitta.

己五、易圓滿資糧
(5) You Amass An Enormous Accumulation Of Merit With Ease

簡言之,凡是以菩提心為動機所造的善,其利益與一切有情數量一樣多。

In short, it is said that when you are motivated by this mind, any virtue you create will provide you with the same benefit as the total number of sentient beings.

己六、速淨罪障
(6) You Rapidly Purify Sins And Obscurations

淨罪法中,沒有比發菩提心更為殊勝的。

Nothing is better for the purification of sins.

罪蘊再龐大,若以菩提心淨治,就如劫火燒柴那般容易。所以說,為了消滅我們的罪業,與其百年勤修缺乏菩提心的淨罪法,還不如修一座菩提心更為殊勝。

That is, no matter how big your heap of sins, it will be purified like kindling burned in the fires at the end of the eon. For these reasons, in order to destroy your sins, it is better to meditate on bodhichitta for one session than to try for a hundred years to purify these sins by some other means divorced from this mind.

己七、成就所願
(7) You Accomplish Whatever You Wish

菩提心發起之后,當能實現現前與究竟的一切目標。最殊勝的目標就是為一切有情除去不欲之苦,並為他們成辦所欲之樂。

When you develop this mind, you effortlessly achieve all your desires, both temporary and ultimate. The best thing to wish for would be that all sentient beings abandon their unwanted suffering and achieve their desired happiness.

只要菩提心在相續中生起,常人難以修成的密續等中所說的明咒與事業法,均能輕易地獲得成就。

If you have developed bodhichitta in your mindstream, you will easily succeed in all things, both ordinary and extraordinary: the knowledge mantras or tantric spells described in the tantric canon and so on.

己八、損害與中斷不侵
(8) You Are Not Bothered By Harm Or Hindrances

《華嚴經》中比喻說,若將[ 無憂藥] 帶在身上者,百病不侵; [ 藥王水] 帶在身上,可以驅蛇; [ 無能勝藥王] 帶在身上,能戰勝敵人;而如果有菩提心,則能保護我們免受煩惱病痛的侵害。

The Laying Out of Stalks Sutra tells us: If you apply the all-healing balm to your body, no disease, etc., can harm you. If you apply the king of balms—which we call “water”—to your body, snakes will avoid you. If you apply the king of balms that incapacitates others, your enemies can do nothing to you. Likewise, when you have bodhichitta, the delusions are incapacitated, and so forth.

這些事例告訴我們,發菩提心有免遭損害與中斷的無邊利益。
These stories illustrate the infinite benefits that accrue from not being bothered by dangers and hindrances.

己九、速疾圓滿一切地道
(9) You Soon Complete The Entire Path And Its Levels

簡言之,生起一切善法的根本是菩提心,有菩提心者,就算小到布施給烏鴉一口之食的善根,都能轉成佛位之因,所以,地道的圓滿將極其迅速。

In short, it is said that because bodhichitta is the root of development of all virtuous Dharma, even giving a piece of food to a crow acts only as a cause for your buddhahood; that is why you will complete the stages and paths so quickly.

己十、成就出生眾生無余安樂之良田
(10) You Become A Fertile Source Of Every Happiness For Other Beings

世間的快樂及聲聞、緣覺、轉輪王等,全是由佛的力量所產生的,而佛是由菩薩產生,菩薩則是由菩提心所產生。因此,菩提心是一切眾生安樂的根本。不僅如此,菩提心又是一切法蘊的心要、諸大菩薩的修持中心。密法的殊勝,也是因為菩提心的力量才得以呈顯。

In other words, all the happiness of this world, all Shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, universal emperors, and the like come from the power of the buddhas. The buddhas developed from bodhisattvas. The bodhisattvas come from bodhichitta, so not only is bodhichitta the sole root of all the happiness of beings, it is also the essence of all the [84,000] bundle-divisions of Dharma. It is the main practice of the children of the victors. The superiority of the secret tantras derives from the power of this mind.

能在相續中生起這樣的正法心要而苦修,所做的一切努力都是值得的,將來也一定會生起菩提心,因為有為法不會停留在原狀,所以菩提心也定能生起。

It is meaningful to take pains to develop this essence of the Dharma in your mindstream: the effort is most worth it. And you are sure to develop bodhichitta if you meditate on it, because conditioned phenomena do not just remain static [so the right cause will produce the desired effect].




第22堂 七因一果(上) 2020年10月16日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 720-737, 中文電子書: 362-372, 英文書及英文電子書: 516-530


戊二、發菩提心之理
The Way To Develop Bodhichitta

分兩節來講︰ (己一)正明修菩提心次第; (己二)以儀軌受持發心。
This has two subheadings: (1) the actual stages in training for bodhichitta; (2) how to develop bodhichitta by means of a ceremony [i.e., through the ritual of taking vows].

己一、正明修菩提心次第
The Actual Stages In Training For Bodhichitta
分兩個方面︰ (庚一)由七因果之門修心法; (庚二)由自他相換之門修心法。
There are two further subheadings here: (1) training the mind by means of the sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction; (2) training the mind through the interchange of self and others.

由[ 七因果] 之門修一切有情成悅意相,是阿阇黎月稱與月官、靜命等師的傳承;由[ 自他相換] 之門修心,是寂天的傳承。
The sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction works by seeing all sentient beings as attractive. It was the system used by Acharya Chandrakirti, Chandragomin, ⁄Shantarakshita, and others. Shantideva’s system was to train the mind through the interchange of self and others. You will be able to develop bodhichitta if you train by means of either of these instructions, for they are lineages that stem from the Teacher himself, and came down through Maitreya and Mañjushrı.

庚一、由七因果之門修心法 (1) Training the mind by means of the sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction
共分八小節︰
There are eight sections in Training the Mind by Means of the Sevenfold Cause-and-Effect Instructions
(辛一)修平等舍; (1) immeasurable equanimity,
(辛二)知母; (2) understanding all sentient beings to be your mother,
(辛三)念恩; (3) remembering their kindness,
(辛四)報恩; (4) repaying their kindness,
(辛五)悅意慈; (5) love through the force of attraction,
(辛六)悲心; (6) compassion,
(辛七)增上意樂; (7) altruism
(辛八)正修發心。 (8) bodhichitta.

其中[知母] 至[ 增上意樂] 六節為因,[ 發心] 為果。其因果相生的情況如下︰在生起為利一切有情而願成佛之前,必須先有擔負利他責任的[ 增上意樂〕;在這之前先要有不忍見一切有情受苦的[ 悲心],否則就生不起[ 增上意樂] ;生起[ 悲心] 之前,又得先生起珍惜一切有情如愛子般的〔悅意慈〕,我們目前能夠輕易對親友生悅意相,對仇敵則不然,所以要將一切有情視為親友,而母親又為親友之最,所以應修一切有情為母,生起[ 念恩]、[ 報恩] 之心,珍愛之慈才會生起。所以,這裡所謂的[ 因果],是指后者的生起要有前者為前提。此道程綿長悠遠,不可躁急,只要依次去修,肯定能生起。
The six from“understanding all beings to be your mother” to “altruism” are the causes. They result in the development of bodhichitta. This is how these all act as cause and effect; but before you can develop the wish to achieve buddhahood to benefit all sentient beings, you must have the altruism to take responsibility for others’ welfare. Further, you will not develop this altruism if you do not have such compassion that you are unable to bear the fact that all sentient beings are tormented by suffering. In order to generate this compassion, you must generate love through the force of attraction—an attraction to all sentient beings whereby they seem to be as attractive as your own dear cherished children. You must precede such love by regarding all sentient beings as dear ones to whom you have the sort of attraction you have at present for people you hold dear but do not have for your enemies. Because the ultimate form of dear one is the mother, you will love and cherish as valuable all sentient beings if you can prove that they have indeed been your mothers, remember their kindness,
and wish to repay them. That is why this is known as the “cause-and-effect” instruction, as eachstep is the necessary preliminary to the next, bringing each succeeding one into being. Don’t be shortsighted and don’t think this process too long: you will definitely be able to develop bodhichitta if you train in stages.

在生起[ 知母] 之前,必須先修[ 平等舍]。譬如繪畫時,柔軟的布面如果高低不平,再怎么畫都畫不好,假如對一切有情心不平等,即便修慈悲等法,所生的慈悲也有偏頗,因此,應當先生起[ 舍無量]。
How you begin to develop this understanding that all sentient beings were once your mother can be illustrated as follows. If you do not make the drawing surface smooth, flat, and even, the drawing will not come out. If you likewise do not develop equanimity toward all sentient beings, even though you meditate on love, or compassion, or whatever, you will develop only a prejudiced form of these. Therefore you must first develop immeasurable equanimity.


(辛一)修平等舍; (1) immeasurable equanimity,

七因果修心之中下包括自他相換修心;自他相換修心中則包括七因教授的全部。七
因果之首所修的平等舍即[ 舍無量],即從自己的立場以平等心看待一切有情。我們往
往對某些人生嗔、對某些人生貪,內心並不平等。

The equanimity first meditated on in the sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction is immeasurable equanimity. On our side, we need to have equanimity of mind toward all sentient beings, but at present our mindstreams do not react equally to all: we get angry at some and attached to others. We could take neutral beings as our first object of mind training, then move on to our friends, and then to our enemies. Or we could take all three together as our object. I think the latter of these two has the wider application.

單[ 平等舍] 這一節,就得花費數月、數年來苦修。花數座時間就想打下圓滿菩提的基礎,是不會有任何進展的。對以上修菩提心法痛下苦功實修,要比畢生作觀修本尊、念咒、觀心本面等利益微渺之事要有價值得多。
You must work hard solely at equanimity for months or years on end, because if you spend only a few meditation sessions on it, you will not progress. Your hopes of laying the foundations for your enlightenment will then only be wishful thinking. If you work hard at this bodhichitta training, I can assure you it is more worthwhile by far than working hard at and meditating on all sorts of less beneficial things that can fritter away your human rebirth, such as meditating on deities, reciting mantras, or trying to improve your meditative abilities.

(辛二)知母; (2) understanding all sentient beings to be your mother,

所謂“ 知母”,就是要認知一切有情是我們最親愛的人我們的母親。假如在相續中未生起此一認知,與菩提心的緣分就斷了。
You must understand that all sentient beings were once the ultimate form of friend or relative—your mother. You have no chance of gaining bodhichitta if you do not develop such an understanding.

修“ 知母” 時,先觀修今生母親曾多次為我前世之母,然后觀父親、再及于其他親友、中庸人士。一旦生起很好的感受,再以仇敵為對象來修,最後以一切有情為對象來修。

First meditate on how your mother of this life has been your mother many times over in previous rebirths. Then meditate on how your father has been a mother to you. Then do this for all your friends and dear ones; then, for those neutral. Then, if you have managed to gain some insight from all this, meditate on how your enemies have been your mother. Only then should you carry out this training with respect to all sentient beings.

(辛三)念恩; (3) remembering their kindness,

既然一切有情都是自己的母親,那么我們應該思惟一下她們做母親時所給予我們的深重恩德。

When you have insight into the fact that sentient beings have been your mother, you ought to think of the enormous kindness they showed you as your mother.

以今生的母親為例,在初、中、后三個階段,母親的恩德都很深。起初,在我住胎的九個月零十天期間;母親因為怕傷害到我,對一切飲食、住行均十分小心,呵護有加。那時候,母親真可稱得上是護理專家,要不然,我們現下不可能有機會接觸並學習正法。這不是我們自己精明能幹的結果,而是母親的恩德所致。

Take the case of your mother in this life: [while you were in her care,] she showed you great kindness at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. In the beginning she carried you in her body for nine months and ten days, cherishing you and protecting you. She was careful about the things she ate or drank, and careful when moving and sitting, for fear of harming her child. If our mothers had not known how to look after us so well, we would not have been able to meet with the holy Dharma or study it now. This did not happen because we could fend for ourselves: it was through our mothers’ kindness.

(辛四)報恩; (4) repaying their kindness,

母親有情正陷于輪回大海的漩渦之中,而此番我們已有救度的方法,如果不救援,我們將是最卑賤的人。因此,應想到救度眾生之責就落在自己肩上而勤修報恩。

That is, for our meditations on repaying their kindness we should feel that we have the means of freeing these sentient beings stranded in the ocean currents of samsara. The responsibility for rescuing them now rests with us, and we would be utterly contemptible if we did not do so.

惠施有情食物、衣服等,只能暫時消除他們的飢渴、寒冷,並沒有究竟的利益。能使有情具足一切安樂、遠離一切痛苦,對他們就有穩固而重大的利益;若能將有情安置於佛位,有情便能具足一切安樂、遠離一切痛苦,所以,我們應該想到︰ “ 我應將一切有情置於佛位﹗

Think as follows: “By merely giving them food, clothing, and so forth, I will only free them from temporary hunger and thirst. It would not bring them any lasting benefit. They would benefit greatly and permanently, however, if they had every possible happiness and were rid of every suffering. If I could lead them to buddhahood they would achieve a state that has every happiness and is free of all suffering. Thus I will lead all sentient beings to buddhahood!


(辛五)悅意慈; (5) love through the force of attraction,

“ 悅意慈” 是一種珍視、愛護眾生的心態。
This love appears in the form of a heartfelt cherishing, an affection for sentient beings.

此處不需另修所緣,修上面三節── “ 知母”、“ 念恩”、“ 報恩”,如果已發起體驗,“ 悅意慈” 自然就會出現。一切有情的相續中不僅沒有無漏之樂,連有漏之樂也沒有,現下他們自稱的所謂快樂,本質上全是痛苦。所以,我們應當想︰ “ 如果現下一切有情能具足一切安樂該有多好﹗願他們具足所有安樂吧﹗我要幫助他們達到這個目標﹗ ”

In other words “love through the force of attraction” is being attracted to all sentient beings as if they were your own children. This love does not need a separate meditation topic: you will develop it automatically when you have developed some feeling for the preceding three sections: “Understanding All Beings to Be YourMother,” “Remembering Their Kindness,” and “Wishing to Repay Their Kindness.” So contemplate as follows: “I can discount the uncontaminated happiness in the mindstreams of all sentient beings; they have only the contaminated sort. Even the thing they take to be happiness has not transcended the nature of suffering.How wonderful if all sentient beings had happiness!May they come to have it! I will procure for them such happiness!”

----------------下堂繼續----------------

(辛六)悲心;(6) compassion,
(辛七)增上意樂;(7) altruism
(辛八)正修發心。(8) bodhichitta.




第23堂 七因一果(下) 2020年11月13日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 738-748, 中文電子書: 373-376, 英文書及英文電子書: 530-536


庚一、由七因果之門修心法
(1) Training the mind by means of the sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction

共分八小節︰
There are eight sections in Training the Mind by Means of the Sevenfold Cause-and-Effect Instructions

(辛一)修平等舍;(1) immeasurable equanimity,
(辛二)知母;(2) understanding all sentient beings to be your mother,
(辛三)念恩;(3) remembering their kindness,
(辛四)報恩; (4) repaying their kindness,
(辛五)悅意慈; (5) love through the force of attraction,
--今堂學習以下部分--
(辛六)悲心;(6) compassion,
(辛七)增上意樂;(7) altruism,
(辛八)正修發心。(8) bodhichitta.


辛六、悲心 The Great Compassion

大悲心是力量強大的成佛不共親因。
This is a potent determinate cause for buddhahood.

大悲心最初重要如種子──它是大乘的決定原素與發菩提心的根本;
大悲心中間重要如水肥──它是生起對佛子行不退縮“ 披甲精進” 的動力;
大悲心最後重要如果實──它是成佛后利他事業恆不間斷的保證。

菩提心力量的強弱,視此大悲心而定,菩薩們修道的速度快慢也由大悲心力量的大小來決定,有些菩薩入密宗門求修速道,且能快速完成,也是因為大悲心的力量。

It is as important as a seed, since it ensures that the path is Mahayana at the outset, and is the root of developing bodhichitta. In the meantime, it is as vital as water and manure, because it produces a perseverance along the way that acts as armor against despondency at the tasks facing a child of the victors. Finally, it is as important as the fruit to be enjoyed, because it is responsible for your continual good works for the benefit of others after you achieve buddhahood. The degree of strength of your bodhichitta is also a function of your great compassion; and the various speeds at which bodhisattvas travel the lamrim fundamentally depend on the strength of their compassion. Bodhisattvas enter the secret tantras in search of a rapid path, and they complete this path quickly through the power of their compassion.

大悲心在相續中生起的標準是︰像慈母一心系念身患重病的愛子一樣,下至飲食亦都祈願一切有情遠離痛苦。單是希望遠離痛苦的悲心,是與聲聞、獨覺共同的悲心;欲救拔痛苦的悲心,才是大乘的不共悲心;我們要生起的是后者。縱然這些悲心難以生起,仍然要努力起大精進,力求生起。

Here are the criteria for having developed the great compassion in your mindstream. You have developed it if, even while eating or drinking, you think about all sentient beings, and want them all to be free of suffering just like a mother worrying about her beloved child who has been struck down by a virulent disease. However, the compassion merely wanting beings to be free of suffering is common to Ÿhravakas and pratyekabuddhas. The compassion of actually wishing to save them from their suffering is exclusive to the Mahayana. You should develop this latter type. Still, these are hard things to develop, and you must work very hard indeed at the techniques.


辛七、增上意樂 Altruism

正如子女要承擔起照顧母親的責任,為一切有情除苦、予樂的擔子就由我來承擔,由我獨立將有情置於佛地,這就是勝過聲聞、獨覺的“ 增上意樂”。 “ 慈心” 與“悲心” 好比不忍見到母親掉入深坑而希望有人出手相救,“ 增上意樂” 則是毫不遲疑地決定由自己親自救她出離險境。總的來說,雖然聲聞、獨覺也有“ 慈心” 與“ 悲心”,但卻沒有這樣的“ 增上意樂”。

辛八、正修發心 Developing Bodhichitta

在勇敢地擔起利生的責任之后,再觀察一下自己是否具有這樣的能力。我們將發現,現下自己連利益一位有情的本事都沒有。我們應當研究一下究竟誰具有這種能力,以及自己是否也能達到他們的水準︰這個世界上,地位最高的是梵天、帝釋之輩,但他們絲毫無法利益有情;聲聞、緣覺、阿羅漢尚未解脫一切系縛,所以利生事業也不圓滿;初地菩薩的利生事業雖然極為廣大,卻無法與一生補處菩薩相比,一生補處菩薩無法與最後有菩薩坐在菩提樹下一天的利生事業相比;菩提樹下菩薩的利生事業,無法與諸佛相比,事業大小猶如處空與手掌之別。因此,只有諸佛的利生事業才是無與倫比的,諸佛能根據有情不同的界、意樂、種姓,毫不費力任運自然地利益有情。當獲得佛位之時,便能擁有以前皈依部份中所說種種功德,所以想要利生就一定要獲得一切智,為此必須發起為了利他而希求圓滿菩提之心。

After taking on this responsibility, see if you are able to carry it out yet. You are unable to help even a single being! You are forced to look for someone who can do this effectively and then see if you too can achieve such a state.
Some great worldly beings, Brahm› or Indra, for example, are of no help at all to sentient beings. And the Ÿhravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and arhats can do little better since they have not abandoned all their fetters.The first-level bodhisattvas can help sentient beings to amuch greater extent, but they can only do a fraction of what the bodhisattvas who will reach enlightenment in their next rebirth can achieve. Even the things these bodhisattvas do cannot compare with a fraction of what bodhisattvas in the very last stages perform for the sake of sentient beings in one day while they sit under a bodhi tree. And even the deeds of those under the bodhi tree do not bear comparison with what buddhas achieve. It is like the difference between the palm of your hand and the whole of space. The buddhas are incomparable in the spontaneous and effortless way they benefit others in accordance with others’ dispositions, wishes, and mental capacities. If you were to achieve such a state, you too would have these qualities [cf. the section on taking refuge, Day 12, pp. 359–66].

我們無論是在修密法的時候,或念“ 嘛呢” 的時候,或游學辯經院的時候,都要懷著菩提心。一旦發起為利有情慾成佛的“ 有勵力覺受” ,即不過是發起了如甘蔗皮一般的菩提心;等到一見有情便能自然發起為利此有情慾獲圓滿菩提之心的“無勵力覺受”,才是在相續中發起了真正的菩提心。由此進入大乘資糧道,也是三大阿僧祗劫積集資糧的開端。若發起這樣的體驗,我們將生起無邊功德,例如獲得“ 菩薩” 與“ 佛子” 的稱號等。在這個基礎上修密宗道,則更是錦上添花,肯定很快將成佛。

Thus, when you practice the secret tantras, or just repeat a rosary of o˙ ma ni padme hum˙—or when, for example, you attend a debating practice or offering ceremony as an ordinary monk—do so in conjunction with this mind. When you experience the conscious desire to achieve buddhahood for the sake of sentient beings, you have developed a bodhichitta that resembles the outer layer of a piece of sugar cane. But when you experience an involuntary desire to achieve full enlightenment for the sake of any sentient being you see, you have developed true bodhichitta in your mindstream. You have thus entered the Mahayana path of accumulation and begun the three great eons of amassing [the two collections]. You will acquire infinite qualities and gain the names “child of the victorious ones” and “bodhisattva.” When you practice after achieving this insight, you are sure to be enlightened quickly if you add the mantric [i.e., tantric] path.




第24堂 發菩提心方法_自他相換(上) 2020年12月11日閱讀頁數: 中文書: 748-761, 中文電子書: 377-381, 英文書及英文電子書: 536-545


己一、正明修菩提心次第
The Actual Stages In Training For Bodhichitta

分兩個方面︰ (庚一)由七因果之門修心法; (庚二)由自他相換之門修心法。

There are two further subheadings here: (1) training the mind by means of the sevenfold cause-and-effect instruction; (2) training the mind through the interchange of self and others.

[ 自他相換] 之門修心,是寂天的傳承。

You will be able to develop bodhichitta if you train by means of either of these instructions, for they are lineages that stem from the Teacher himself, and came down through Maitreya and Mañjushrı.

庚二、由自他相換之門修心法
Training The Mind Through The Interchange Of Self And Others

以上是講由七因果之門發心法,接著講寂天大菩薩的自他相換之門修心法。雖然以上述七因果教授來修心也能發菩提心,但為了使力量更勇猛,我們還需要以自他相換的模式來修心。這一修法在以前是守密的,並與“ 取舍” 修法分開來講,名義“ 修心”。對非器來講,這一自他相換的修法,不太容易接受。

Now I shall discuss the mind-training system that uses the interchange of self and others. This was the system of Shantideva, a great child of the victorious ones. Although you will develop bodhichitta if you train your mind according to the above sevenfold cause-and-effect method, we will still cover this system of interchange of self and others, because this thought is so powerful. The earlier Kadampas used this technique. What we usually call mind training refers particularly to the interchange of self and others, and to giving and taking.

“ 法殊勝”,比喻此法如金剛寶的道理,以前講本法的利益時已講過了。又如同少許日光卻能消除黑暗,本法能消除我執之暗;如少許藥樹葉片即能除病,本法能法除我執之病;在五濁惡世、修法難以入道的時代,以此“ 修心” 法為伴侶,即能免受惡緣侵擾,如是等等,本法有許多殊勝處。

The greatness of this Dharma can be seen by referring back to the section on the benefits of bodhichitta and how bodhichitta is like a diamond. It is similarly able to dispel the darkness of self-cherishing, just as even a fraction of the rays of the sun can dispel darkness. It can dispel the disease of self-cherishing just as even a part of the medicine tree can dispel illness. In these times when the five types of degeneration are commonplace and Dharma paths may not be effective, this mind training will assist you and you will not be bothered by unfortunate circumstances. This Dharma has so many greatnesses.


(一)開示加行基礎法
Teaching The Preliminaries On Which This Dharma Depends

即是在下、中士道中修心,因為與“ 道次第” 中所講的內容並無不同,所以此處不再贅述。
This section is the training of the mind in the part of the path shared with the small and medium scopes. I do not have to teach this all over again as there is no difference between the way they are treated here and in the lamrim.

(二)修兩種菩提心
Training Yourself For The Two Types Of Bodhichitta
菩提心分為勝義與世俗兩種,是根據大乘種姓的利、鈍來區分的。
Developing (1) ultimate bodhichitta, and (2) relative bodhichitta.

勝義菩提心 Ultimate Bodhichitta

古代的引導文,都是先講勝義發心修心。如果在方便分尚未堅固時就開示勝義發心修心法,便有可能像大成就者朗波果跋巴一樣。因此,此處按照彩林雍增的軌矩,不先講勝義發心修心,而留到后面與“ 般若波羅蜜多” 合起來講。

The preserved teachings of the past say that the sharp-witted of the Mahayana lineage should train their minds by developing ultimate bodhichitta first. However, the story of the mahasiddha Hastikovapa could repeat itself if you first discuss training the mind through development of ultimate bodhichitta before you have taught the other part that deals with method.So I will not speak on the ultimate-bodhichitta mind training first. This follows the practice of Tutor Tsechogling. I shall be dealing with it later, for it is included below in the section on the six perfections.

世俗菩提心 Training The Mind In Relative Bodhichitta

第二、世俗菩提心修心。關於本教授的出處,見之于《親友女因緣》等,以及大悲大師過去在有學道位,受生為地獄中牽車力土時發心等故事。